Intelligence and IQ testing

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  • Intelligence and IQ testing
    • Origins of intelligence testing
      • Binet (1905)
        • developed a test of mental age
      • Louis Terman & the birth of IQ
        • developed the Stanford-Binet test (1916)
        • IQ = (Mental age / Chronological age) x 100
      • issues :(
        • can't test intelligence if there's disagreement about what it is?
    • One thing or many?
      • Unitary view- intelligence is one thing
      • Multi-factorial view- intelligence is made up of multiple factors
    • Spearman's 'g' factor
      • all have an ability in common
      • g = general intelligence
        • the scores on specific aspects - 's' factors e.g. spatial, numerical, mechanical and verbal
      • found positive correlations between scores on different tests
      • factor analysis
        • statistical technique which can be used to find subsets of questions that go together in a psychometric test
      • Measuring 'g'
        • The Wechsler tests
          • each scale assessed g and made two sub-measures: verbal and performance
          • some Qs rely on culture
        • Raven's Progressive Matrices
          • measured 'g' as an abstract ability
          • relied on non-verbal problems so minimised influence of culture
        • Thurstone's (1938) Primary Mental Abilities
          • disagreed with 'g' as a solitary factor
            • tested and found there are seven separate factors, they operate independently of each other
              • reasoning, spatial, perceptual speed, numerical ability, verbal comprehension, word fluency, associative memory and reasoning
    • Cattell's (1967) crystallised and fluid intelligence
      • crystallised- acquired skills and knowledge gained through experience
        • increases with age and experience
      • fluid- basic info processing and abstract thinking ability
        • present from birth, stabilises in adulthood, decreases in old age
    • Gardner's (1983) multiple intelligences
      • proposed 9 intelligence's, favoured practical activities that involve all the 5 senses
      • rejected traditional IQ tests
      • naturalistic, intraversional, visual-spatial, musical, kinesthetic, interpersonal, verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical
        • later added naturalist and existentialist


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