Institutional Aggression

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  • Institutional Aggression
    • Within Groups - PRISONS
      • Deprivation Model
      • Importation Model
        • Irwing and Cressey: prisoners are not 'blank slates' -> bring own social histories w/them into prison -> normative systems developed in the outside world 'imported' into prison
          • SUPPORTING EVIDENCE Harer (2006): 58 US prisons black inmates significant higher rates of violent behaviour, but lower rates of alcohol-related and drug-related misconduct than whites -> parallel to racial differences in these behaviours in US Society -> supports 'importation model'
        • Allender & Marcell: gang members disproportionately engage in prison violence -> pre-prison gang memberhsip important determinant of prison misconduct. HUFF found gang members in the US 10x more likely to commit a murder & 3x more likely to assault someone in public than non-gang members of similar age & background
          • CONTRADICTING EVIDENCE DeLisi: prior street gang members no more likely to engage in prison violence -> lack in correlation may be b/c gang members tend to be isolated from the general inmate population, thus, restricting their opportunities for violence.
            • Further supported by Fischer: isolated gang members in a special management reduced the rates of serious assauklts by 50%
      • Jiang and Fisher: support for both deprivation and importation models. Deprivation better able to explain violence against prison staff -> importatiion able to explain violence towards other inmates
        • Challenged by Poole & Regoli: best indicator of violence among juvenile offenders was pre-institutional violence regardless of any situal factors.
    • Between groups - GENOCIDE
      • Dehuminisation
        • If the target group is dehumanised so  that its members are seen as worthless animals, they won't be morally considered thus acceptable to kill. (Rwandan Hutu-controlled radio station RTLM called Tutsi's 'cockroaches')
          • Evdience of dehumanisation: Holocaust, Bosnians in the Balkan, Rwanda. H/W dehumanisrds immigrants
  • Howard League for Penal Reform-> recorded assault incidents rose 61% b/twn 2000 & 2009
    • Importation Model
      • Irwing and Cressey: prisoners are not 'blank slates' -> bring own social histories w/them into prison -> normative systems developed in the outside world 'imported' into prison
        • SUPPORTING EVIDENCE Harer (2006): 58 US prisons black inmates significant higher rates of violent behaviour, but lower rates of alcohol-related and drug-related misconduct than whites -> parallel to racial differences in these behaviours in US Society -> supports 'importation model'
      • Allender & Marcell: gang members disproportionately engage in prison violence -> pre-prison gang memberhsip important determinant of prison misconduct. HUFF found gang members in the US 10x more likely to commit a murder & 3x more likely to assault someone in public than non-gang members of similar age & background
        • CONTRADICTING EVIDENCE DeLisi: prior street gang members no more likely to engage in prison violence -> lack in correlation may be b/c gang members tend to be isolated from the general inmate population, thus, restricting their opportunities for violence.
          • Further supported by Fischer: isolated gang members in a special management reduced the rates of serious assauklts by 50%
  • =Relevant embellishment
  • =Very important
  • AO1
  • AO2
  • Aggression caused byL stressful & oppressive conditions inc. crowding & staff wexperience
    • Deprivation Model
  • IDA
  • Obedience to authority
    • Between groups - GENOCIDE
      • Dehuminisation
        • If the target group is dehumanised so  that its members are seen as worthless animals, they won't be morally considered thus acceptable to kill. (Rwandan Hutu-controlled radio station RTLM called Tutsi's 'cockroaches')
          • Evdience of dehumanisation: Holocaust, Bosnians in the Balkan, Rwanda. H/W dehumanisrds immigrants
    • Milgram believed that the holocaust was primarily the result of situational pressures -> forced Nazi soldiers to obey leaders... Participant's in his study could give electric shocks b/c told to do so by 'authority' -> the Nazi regime may have also functioned in such a way.
      • Mandel REJECTS Milgram's claims -> monocausal-> Goldhagen suggests main causal factor was anti-semitism
  • REAL WORLD APP Esses: individuals high in Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) dehumanise outgroup members -> foerign refugees & asylum seekers -> Media fuels contempt
  • REAL WORLD APP: HMP Woodhill -> David W: violence b/c of hot,noisy, overcrowded-> two units that were less claustrophobic w/outisde view, noise reduced masked by music, temperature lowered. Despite the fact these changes eradicated assaults, political pressure led to the units changing their regimes

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