Ethnic differences in achievement: internal factors: institutional racism: a summary

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  • Institutional racism
    • Critical race theory: racism is an ingrained feature of society
      • Daria Roithmayr (2003): institutional racism is a 'locked-in inequality'
      • Gillborn (2008): ethnic inequality is 'so deep rooted and so large that it is a practically inevitable feature of the education system'
    • Marketisation and segregation
      • Gillborn (1997): marketisation allows negative stereotypes to influence decisions about school admissions
        • Moore and Davenport (1990): selection procedures lead to ethnic segregation
          • The Commission for Racial Equality (1993) identifies 4 reasons
            • Lack of info. and application forms in minority languages
            • Racist bias in interviews for school places
            • Reports from primary schools that stereotype minority pupils
            • EM parents are often unaware how the waiting list system works and the importance of deadlines
    • The ethnocentric curriculum
      • Troyna and Williams: meagre provision for teaching Asian languages as compared w/ European languages
        • Miriam David (1993): the National Curriculm is 'specifically British' and largely ignores non-European languages, literature and music
      • Ball (1994): the NC ignores ethnic diversity and promotes an attitude of 'little Englandism'
      • Bernard Coard (1971; 2005): in history the British may be presented as bringing civilisation to the 'primitive' peoples they colonised. This image of black people as inferior undermines black children's self-esteem
    • Access to opportunities
      • Gillborn (2008): official statistics show whites are over 2x as likely as black Caribbeans to be identified as G&T, and 5x more than black Africans
      • Tikly et al (2006): in 30 schools in the AH initiative, blacks were more likely to be entered for lower tier GCSE exams
        • Steve Strand's (2012) analysis of large scale data from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England shows: a white-black achievement gap in maths and science tests at 14 y/o. Found this to be the result of blacks being systematically underrepresented in entry to higher tier tests
    • Criticisms of Gillborn
      • Sewell: racism is not powerful enough to prevent individuals from succeeding, it is external factors instead
      • 'Over achievement' exists by other, 'model minorities' - such as Chinese and Indian pupils
        • Gillborn (2008): the image of 'model minorities'  makes the system appear fair and meritocratic, justifies the failure of other minorities, and ignores the fact that 'model minorities' still suffer racism in schools
    • The new IQism
  • Assessment
    • Gillborn (2008): 'the assessment game' is rigged so as to validate the dominant culture's superiority
      • In 2003, baseline assessments were replaced by the foundation stage profile. Blacks now appeared to be doing worse than whites
        • The FSP is completed at the end of the reception year
        • The FSP is based entirely on teachers' judgments
    • Institutional racism
      • Critical race theory: racism is an ingrained feature of society
        • Daria Roithmayr (2003): institutional racism is a 'locked-in inequality'
        • Gillborn (2008): ethnic inequality is 'so deep rooted and so large that it is a practically inevitable feature of the education system'
      • Marketisation and segregation
        • Gillborn (1997): marketisation allows negative stereotypes to influence decisions about school admissions
          • Moore and Davenport (1990): selection procedures lead to ethnic segregation
            • The Commission for Racial Equality (1993) identifies 4 reasons
              • Lack of info. and application forms in minority languages
              • Racist bias in interviews for school places
              • Reports from primary schools that stereotype minority pupils
              • EM parents are often unaware how the waiting list system works and the importance of deadlines
      • The ethnocentric curriculum
        • Troyna and Williams: meagre provision for teaching Asian languages as compared w/ European languages
          • Miriam David (1993): the National Curriculm is 'specifically British' and largely ignores non-European languages, literature and music
        • Ball (1994): the NC ignores ethnic diversity and promotes an attitude of 'little Englandism'
        • Bernard Coard (1971; 2005): in history the British may be presented as bringing civilisation to the 'primitive' peoples they colonised. This image of black people as inferior undermines black children's self-esteem
      • Access to opportunities
        • Gillborn (2008): official statistics show whites are over 2x as likely as black Caribbeans to be identified as G&T, and 5x more than black Africans
        • Tikly et al (2006): in 30 schools in the AH initiative, blacks were more likely to be entered for lower tier GCSE exams
          • Steve Strand's (2012) analysis of large scale data from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England shows: a white-black achievement gap in maths and science tests at 14 y/o. Found this to be the result of blacks being systematically underrepresented in entry to higher tier tests
      • Criticisms of Gillborn
        • Sewell: racism is not powerful enough to prevent individuals from succeeding, it is external factors instead
        • 'Over achievement' exists by other, 'model minorities' - such as Chinese and Indian pupils
          • Gillborn (2008): the image of 'model minorities'  makes the system appear fair and meritocratic, justifies the failure of other minorities, and ignores the fact that 'model minorities' still suffer racism in schools
      • The new IQism
  • Gillborn: teachers and policymakers see pupils 'ability' or 'potential' as a fixed quality easily measured - and once it has been measured, the pupil can be put into the 'right' set or stream
    • Gillborn and Youdell (2001): secondary schools are increasingly using old-style intelligence tests to allocate pupils to different streams upon entry
      • All a test can do is tell someone what a person has learned already or can do now, not what they may be able to do in the future - like a driving test

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