Institutional Aggression

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  • Institutional Aggression
    • Within groups
      • NHS reported 84,000 violent acts against staff in 2000/1
      • Prisons reported 26,000 prisoner assaults (US)
      • Importation model - Irwin & Cressey
        • Prisoners aren't "blank slates"
          • They import normative systems into prison
          • Nature - personality vs nurture - prison environment
      • Deprivation model - Paterline & Peterson
        • Aggression is the product of stressful or oppressive conditions
          • Crowding increases fear and frustration
        • Hodgkinson/Davies & Burgess - more experience = less assaults
      • Hazing
        • Institutional bullying
        • Allen &  Madden
          • 1/2 of 11,000 students.
        • People participate in awful activities to feel as if they belong
        • Illegal in many states
          • Alcohol/drugs lowers inhibitions
    • Lucifer effect
      • 'Them' and 'us' groups
      • Sides employ strategies to gain control
    • Between groups
      • Genocide
        • Difficult social conditions
        • Scapegoating
        • Dehumanising
          • Rwanda: radio called the tutsi 'cockroaches
        • Moral values are inapplicable
          • Killing starts
        • Passivity of bystanders
          • Passive bystanders signals consent
            • Intervention can shorten conflict but hasten it
              • Rwanda - 800,000 deaths in 100 days
      • Milgram
        • Holocaust was result of situational pressures forcing obedience
        • If his study could cause the outcome it did, it would be easy for the nazis
      • HMP Woodhill
        • Aggression caused by heat, noise and overcrowding
        • Set up prisons with improved conditions
          • Eradicated assaults but political pressures meant regimes had to change

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