Inheritance definitions

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  • Inheritance
    • Gene: sequence of DNA that codes for a polypeptide and which occupies a specific locus on a chromosome.
    • Allele: variant nucleotide sequence for a particular gene at a given locus, which codes for an altered phenotype.
    • Linked: description of genes that are on the same chromosome and therefore do not segregate independently at meiosis.
    • Carrier: a phenotypically normal female with one normal dominant allele and one mutant, recessive allele
    • Sex linkage: a gene is carried by a sex chromosome so that a characteristic it encodes is seen predominantly in one sex
    • Non-disjunction: faulty cell division in meiosis following which one of the daughter cells receives two copies of a chromosome and the other receives none.
    • Polyploidy: having more than two complete sets of chromosomes
    • Epigenetics: control of gene expression by modifying DNA or histones, but not affecting the DNA nucleotide sequence
    • Oncogene: proto-oncogene with a mutation that results in cancer

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