Infradian and Ultradian Rhythms

Including AO1, research, IDA and wider evaluation for each.

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  • Created by: ava.scott
  • Created on: 11-03-15 21:28
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  • INFRADIAN AND ULTRADIAN RHYTHMS
    • INFRADIAN
      • ao1 infradian
        • Hormones
          • Follicle stimulating
            • Hormones released by the anterior pituitary gland, causing egg to mature and ovaries to release oestrogen.
          • Oestrogen
            • Stops FSH from being produced, and stimulates pituitary gland to release Luteneizing hormone.
          • Progestrone
            • Secreted by ovaries, and maintines lining of uterus and remains at high levels through pregnancy.
          • Luteinizing hormone
            • Causes a mature egg to be released from the ovary.
          • HCG
            • Released by the embryo, causes implantation and noruishes egg after fertilisation.
        • Exogeneous zeitgebers
          • Pheromones may play a role in the synchronisation of women's periods. They are released into the air.
            • probably picked up by the olfactory system.
      • IDA infradian
        • Biological approach:
          • Could be reductionist as it does not fully explain how exogenous zeitgebers such as pheromones affect the system, and overlooks the role they playt.
            • Negative for the theory as it fails to explain and jystify all aspects of the mentral cycle.
          • Easy to test empirically , which helps us justify the theories with objective and unbiased evidence.
      • A cycle which lasts longer than 24 hours.
      • Research into the menstrual cycle:
        • PHEROMONES
          • RUSSEL
            • Applied the odour of one woman to a group of sexually inactive women.
            • odour was gathered from under the arms, then rubbed on the upper lip of 8 participants.
            • repeated for 4 months, daily.
            • 8/8 women hadcyclces that had synchronised with the woman, compared to non ein the control group.
            • blind experiment.
            • Grounding: The study sugt pheromones do act as exogenous zeitgebers on the mentrual cycle. This is bth good and bad for the theory; it does suggets that chemicals and biological aspects control teh cycle, but it faisl to fully explain the action of pheronomes also.
              • Also makes evolutionary sense, as if women were fertilised at similar times, they would also give birth, and then be able to share breastfeeding, or slip the childcare.
            • Evaluation: samll ample size means a low population validity, decreasing the generalisability of the study.
            • very repeatable and well designed study that shoudl lead to reliable results after more repeats and larger scale experiments.
          • McClintock
            • suggestsed that male pheromones may affect a womans cycle after observing that women who work with men often have shorter menstrual cycles.
            • Grounding: This  would make sense evolutionarily because a man would have more chance of fertilizing a woman if she could have shorter and more frequent menstrual cycles. Therefore, the role of pheromones is supported.
            • Evaluation: Could be other factors around the workplace that effect the menstrual cycle e.g. physical exterion, stress,
        • LIGHT
          • Reinberg
            • Documented the case of a woman who lived in a cave for 3 months with only dim lighting and found that her menstrual cycle shorted to 25 days (normal is 28)
            • Grounding: Suggets that light also has an effect  on the menstrual cycle. The theory does not metion light, ad so this is a weakness.
            • Evaluation: Living in a cave could lead to many other factors effecting the mentrual cycle e.g. diet, isolation, exercise.
              • Evaluation: poor popultaional validity-n pehraps only this womans cycle shortened and others would lengthen.
            • Evaluation: poor popultaional validity-n pehraps only this womans cycle shortened and others would lengthen.
            • Evaluation: Poor repeatability
              • UNRELIABLE AND INTERNALLY AND EXTERNALLY INVALID.
            • Menarche- or onset of period- occured earlier in winbter months than in summer months when there is less light.
              • evaluation: 600 german girls so higher populational validity.
              • menarche also occurrred earlier in blind girls.
                • evaluation: blind girls may have less social interaction, and so will ahve shorter periods. This isnt because of light but response to pheromones or even just stimulation by company,
              • Grounding:This supports the theory that  light levels can have an effect on the mentsrual cycle. Alternatively, there are many factors that could also be involved/
                • menarche also occurrred earlier in blind girls.
                  • evaluation: blind girls may have less social interaction, and so will ahve shorter periods. This isnt because of light but response to pheromones or even just stimulation by company,
              • evaluation: other factors in winter. e.g. temperature, food, less exercise/
        • wider evaluation infradian
          • practical applications; irregular/ long periods may be sorted out by socialising with women more often.
            • e.g. mcclintocks later study showed that women with irregular cyls could be synchronised with odour donors.
      • ULTRADIAN
        • Cycles that last less that runs more than once in 24 hours.
        • AO1 ultradian
          • 5 cycles within a nights sleep.
          • Deep sleep (SWS)only occurs in the first two cycles. REM occurs in all 5 cycles, and time spent n REM increases with each cycle.
          • Sleep staircase has 5 steps (1,2,3,4, and REM)
            • Cycle proceeds 1,2,3,4,3,2,REM( latter for 10 minutes)
              • Cycle proceeda 2,3,4 (for longer), 2 ,3 REM (for 10 mins again)
                • Cycle proceeds 2, REM, 2 (REM for 40 minutes)
                  • Cycle proceeds 2 (for 70 minutes) REM (for 1 hour) and 2
                    • This cycle is the emergent stage!WAKE UP!
        • IDA ultradian
          • Bioligcal detrminism, as a endogenous pacemaker controls the rhythm of sleep.
            • This has implications for ow sleep cycles are researched. Can be very emprirical, as an EEG ,achine can measure a particpants brain waves and electrical activity during sleep.
              • Could also make it very difficult to genralise, as certain populationsmay have different sleeping patterns.
          • Biological reductionisms: doesnt count for differences in cultural between sleep patterns, or the role exogenous zeitgebers interaction.
        • RESEARCH EVIDENCE ultradian
          • Different factors
            • missing a nights sleep creates a stronger sleep drive.
            • caffeine deceases quality of SWS and REM sleep and increases wakefulness.
            • Alcohol helps people fall alseep but reduces quality of sleep. It cuases arousal whenit is metaolised, and so sleep is not as deep
            • Beta Blockers increase dayrime wakefulness and reduces SWS and REM hwen asleep.
          • Segmented sleep
            • wehr
              • confined 8 young men into darkness for 14 hours a day for a month.
                • small populational validity as only 8 men used.
                • low ecological validity, as complete darkness is unnatural, and also the men werent at home.
              • found that they soon dveloped a pattern of sleeping 3-5 hours and then awoke, an dthe agian for 3-5 hours.
                • Grounding: Doesnt support the idea of a endogenous pacemaker defining the sleep pattern as it has varied over generations.
                  • Also displays the role that social factors have on sleep patterns e.g. as night time became more ocial. people sleep in bigger blocks.
                • This could reduce the amount of time n REM as the 3rd and 4th cycles may never be reached. Or, sleep cycles may shorten, to fit more cycles in within the dshorter blocks of sleep.
                  • carried out a lot of historical research and found that this segmented sleeping pattern  wa prevalent before 1920.
            • ekirch
              • carried out a lot of historical research and found that this segmented sleeping pattern  wa prevalent before 1920.
        • WIDER EVALUATION
          • Practical applications include
            • napping= good for thos ewho sleep badly at night
            • avoid chemicals such as caffeine, alcohol and bet blockers, if you are struggling to sleep.
          • The biological approach is not sufficient in explaining all the social factors that affect sleep, as displayed by Ekirch and Wehr. It is obviously not completely dicatted by endogenous pacemaker and light.

    Comments

    8cburton

    saaafeeeee gotta love dem periods

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