Alcohols

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  • Created by: emma
  • Created on: 02-04-14 17:02
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  • Alcohols
    • Industrial production
      • From ethene
        • Temp 300, pressure 6000kpa, catalyst conc phosphoric acid, continuous
        • 100% yeild, continuous and pure ethanol produced, 100% atom economy
        • High tech (expensive) high energy cost, coming from crude oil
      • Fermentaion
        • Temp 30-40, catalyst yeast, batch, anerobic
        • Biofuel a fuel derived from or produced from renewable biological resources
        • Carbon neutral a process in which there is no net overall carbon emissions to the atmosphere
        • Low energy cost, low tech (cheap) Low energy consumption, uses renewable resources
        • 12% yeild needs to be purified, slow rate of reaction, batch, Large area af land for crops
    • Dehydration
      • Alkenes and H2O are formed
      • Concentrated sulphuric acid used as a catalyst
    • Oxidation of alcohols
      • Warm acidified potassium dichromate (orange)
        • Dichromate ions are oxidising agents so are reduced to chromium ions
      • Primary alcohols
        • Primary oxidation product aldehyde
          • Further oxidation product carboxylic acid
            • Colour change orange to greem
      • Secondary alcohol
        • Primary oxidation product ketone
          • No further oxidation reaction
            • Colour change orange to green
      • Tertiary alcohol
        • No oxidation reaction
          • Stays orange
    • Chemical tests for aldehydes and ketones and carboxylic acids
      • Tollens reagent
        • Contains silver nitrate
          • Silver ions are reduced to silver metal and leave A SILVER MIRROR
          • Aldehyde is oxidised to an carboxylic acid
            • No reaction with ketone
      • Fehlings solution
        • Blue copper ions are reduced in presence of aldehyde
          • Brick red precipitate forms
          • No reaction with ketone
      • Carboxylic acid
        • React with sodium hydrogen
          • Bubbles of CO2
            • Acid based reaction

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