Industrial Revolution

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  • Industrial Revolution
    • Religion and empiricism
      • protestant work ethic
        • Weber
          • encouraged production/growth among workers
        • protestantism more focused on "materialistic joy" than "ecclesiastical piety
        • protestant notion you can't buy your way into heaven/atone using acts so attend to earthly life
      • empiricism in science and philosophy
        • Paduan Aristotelianism u/s science more and don't use God as ultimate explanation
        • ppl spent more time thinking about how to improve production techniques not just God all the time
      • Evaluation
        • changed patterns of consump/prod bc ppl + enthusiastic about buying things and spending their extra cash
        • contributed to Fordism bc + produced and + tech to accommodate that
        • Darwinism = empiricist study leading to Postmod. link between Xianity and prod not here anymore
          • Wiseman and Young: "there is robust evidence of a negative association between a measure of religious belonging and productive entrepreneurship"
    • Technological Advances
      • Technology and factories
        • move from basic, agrarian economy reliant on animal/man power to prosperous economy reliant on dev/sci prog
        • Landes: tech triggered "cumulative, self-sustaining advance in technology whose repercussions would be felt in all aspects of economic life"
        • (Landes) tech developed cyclically, one enhanced another which later enhanced the first
        • Evaluation
          • inc productivity, output, speed of change; people produced more goods, faster, of better quality
          • more affordable/desirable goods ppl bought more
          • contrib to Fordism bc emph on productivity and inc output, e.g. conveyor belt
          • tech lucrative sector, always evolving e.g. iPhone X facial recog, repeat of this transition changing lanscape of soc
      • Fossil fuels
        • demand increased to power machinery
        • factories along coal threads, communities built around those
          • infrastructre shaped to provide easy transportation from coal mining areas to big inner cities
        • Evaluation
          • more prod possible bc of FF, e.g. cars. consume + bc + available
          • contrib to Fordism bc production line & factories
          • contemp rev away from FF, pressure to switch to renewable energies (closure of mines) BUT big environ impact
    • Class
      • Marx & Weber: class structure key
        • Comte on feudal econ: "a kind of subordination that subjected the labouring men to the idle and devouring men"
        • deteriorated w/ rise of bourgeouisie, signalling changing hands of class power
        • Evaluation
          • free labour, living wages, growing infl/auth of mid-class in working environs
          • Thierry: "industry will disarm power, by causing the desertion of its satellies, who will find more profit in free and honest labour than in the profession of slaves guarding slaves"
          • management class in Fordism = new job opps and structure 4 fordist methods
          • class structure still here
            • Savage: "spiralling levels of inequality"
            • welfate state to inc support for poor ppl provide services 4 E, prej still ingrained
      • Commercial Rev preceding IR
        • brought new system of prod, i.e. capitalist trade
          • proto-caps outsourced textile work to poor agro workers and sold goods cheap on market to make profit
            • made wider wage gap w/ proto-industrialism
        • Evaluation
          • new prod system (capitalism) ppl make things on large scale and turn profits by paying little
          • contrib to Fordism bc idea of making smth en masse and turning profits
          • new gens set new goals for equality, e.g. UK election young ppl for Jezza = attempt to min class divides
            • Savage: "non-governmental organisations such as Oxfam have drawn attention to the cycles of advantage transmitted across generations and pointed to the unequal opportunities that reinforce privilege"

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