Individual Differences Studies (AS)

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  • Individual Differences Approach
    • Rosehan
      • Aim - Psychiatrists can't tell between sane and insane
      • Participants - Doctors + Nurses from 12 different hospitals in 5 different states in the USA
      • Method - Written records of ward/ Hearing voices "empty" "Hollow"/ Approached staff with request and repeated in Stanford University.
      • Results - Diagnosis of Schizophrenia/ Average 19 days/ "Patient engages in writing behaviour"/ Oral acquisitive syndrome (outside cafeteria)/ Depersonalisation + Powerlessness.
      • Conclusion - Psychiatrists can't tell between sane + insane/ Stickiness of Labels.
    • Thigpen and Cleckley
      • Aim - Treatment of 25 year old woman suffering with blackouts + severe headaches.
      • Participants - Eve white 25 years old
      • Method - Case Study w/ Interviews, Hypnosis, Observation, EEG tests, Psychometric and Projective tests and Intelligence tests
      • Results - Letter with two fonts/ Heard voices/ IQ test = EW - 110 EB - 104/ Ew - Repressive Eb - Regressive/ Jane = more responsible than Eb more confident than Ew
      • Evaluation - EW experienced MPD
    • Griffiths
      • Aim - Investigate cognitive bias' involved in gambling behaviour
      • Participants - 29 males 1 female mean age = 21.6 years (reg gamblers) 15 males 15 females (non reg)
      • Method - £3 for 'Fruitskill', try to stay for 60 plays. Studies behaviour and half = thinking aloud. Then semi-structured interview.
      • Results- no diff objective measure of skill, reg gamblers believed in skill. 14% reg gamblers = irrational verbalisation 2.5% non reg.
      • Conclusion - Reg gamblers use cognitive bias.

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