INDIVIDUAL + CIVIL RIGHTS 

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  • INDIVIDUAL + CIVIL RIGHTS
    • Roe vs Wade
      • 1973 - case overturning laws making abortion illegal
      • January 1973 declared state laws banning abortion = unconstitutional
        • number of abortions increased dramatically
          • 1.7million in 1977
      • political consequence
        • catholic church and right to life organisations lobied congress
          • tried to pressure them to pass human life amendment
        • senator Jesse Helms amended foreign assistance act
          • ban federal funds being used for abortion
        • Hyde Amendment to health education and welfare department
          • outlawed use of federal funds for abortion
            • unless mother's life is at great risk
        • pro life groups involved in 1976 election
          • opposed pro abortion e.g. senator Frank Church
      • social consequence
        • Francis Schaeffer and Everit Coop
          • 1979 made whatever happened to the human race
            • 4 hour film shown to 20 american cities
    • Black Americans
      • 1972 affirmative action
        • 300,000 firms working on federal contractions
          • some federal jobs reserved for black americans
      • by 1980 35-45% of american families achieved middle class life
      • 1978 Bakke Case decided by US supreme court
        • 5-4 decision Bakke was treated unfairly by California Law School
      • those in inner city slums faced unemployment, poverty and poor housing
        • black fam incomes declined compared to whites
          • from 60% in 1971 to 57% in 1980
      • supreme court declared school integration
        • 1971 Swann vs Charlotte Mecklenburg board of education
          • controversial idea of bussing children across districts
            • in order to create full intergration
            • resulted in riots e.g. Kansas and Boston
    • Gay Rights
      • by 1973 800+ gay and lesbian organisations formed across USA
      • more active in local politics
        • Miami, Florida and Wichita in Kansas
          • activists helped repel laws discriminating against gays
        • George Moscone elected mayor of San Francisco 1975
        • Edward Koch mayor of NY in 1977
        • Harvey Milk city supervisor in San Fran in 1975
          • assassinated with Moscone due to sexual orientation
            • followed by riots
    • Native Americans
      • 1970 population of 800,00 rose to 1.4m in 1980
        • unemployment and poverty
      • 1968 AIM set up (American Indian Movement)
        • activists captured Alcatraz Prison in San Fran 1969
        • 1972 occupied Bureau of Indian Affairs for 6 days
      • 1973 major confrontation with law enforcement agencies
        • Wounded Knee on Pine Ridge Reservation
          • 2 killed and 12 injured
          • site of sioux massacre in 1890
      • Indian Self Determination Act passed by congress in 1974
        • tribes could assume responsibility for federal funded programmes
          • run by Bureau of Indian Affairs
    • Workers Rights
      • foreign competition caused business relocation from Rust to Sun belt
        • Rust Belt  Midwest and Northeast
        • Sun Belt like Florida and Texas had economic growth
      • 1975 NY City faced bankruptcy
        • as Ford refused federal aid
        • hospitals and parks closed, civil servants and teachers lost jobs
      • Equal Pay Act and Safety at Work Act 1970 improved pay and conditions
        • especially for women
      • 1979 3rd biggest car manufacturer Chrysler faced bankruptcy
        • Carter provided a bail out
          • only after 100'00s had lost jobs
      • rehabilitation act 1973 for disabled
        • equal opportunities for employment within federal government
    • Women
      • equal rights amendment passed in 1972
        • failed to gain support of 3/4 of states
      • more womens rights groups emerged
        • Women's Liberation  Front and Redstockings
      • advancements in politics
        • 1974 Ella Grasso elected governor of Connecticut
      • 1975 Military Academies for army at West Point
        • and navy at Annapolis and air force in Colorado
          • began admitting female cadets
      • increased women in work force
        • in 1960 made up 38% increased to 52% by 1980

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