individual differences - cognitive approach

  • Created by: Elyseee
  • Created on: 17-01-21 16:46
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  • cognitive approach
    • Explaining hallucinations
      • Hallucinations are experienced by many with schizophrenia - also experienced by 2.5-4% of general population, most are not diagnosed with psychiatric disorder (Clairborn 2009)
      • Morrison 1998 - proposed triggers such as sleep deprivation can cause some to ‘hear’ voices
      • People inappropriately appraise voices as belonging to eg) the devil
      • Elicits behaviours such as social withdrawal or self harm
      • Emotions produced from these behaviours such as sadness or shame reinforce messages from voices, causes them to perpetuate
    • Explaining negative symptoms
      • Beck et al 2008 - drawn on idea of cognitive triad to explain negative symptoms
      • Proposed individuals endorse dysfunctional beliefs about performance and ability to experience pleasure, hold a cynical and gloomy view of future
      • Mental filters only allow negative messages in
      • Results in negative symptoms eg) avolition and anhedonia
    • Lack of preconscious filters
      • Frith 1979 - proposed core positive symptoms of schizophrenia can be explained by difficulties in inhibiting preconscious content
      • Our senses receive information from our environment, it reaches our awareness and we interpret it - this is our preconscious
      • ‘Best fit’ of incoming content is propelled to our conscious so we can make sense of the information
      • In some the filters that inhibit information making it out of the preconscious are defective
      • This leads to those with schizophrenia having multiple and ambiguous interpretations of event, and find it difficult to select one and carry out appropriate actio
    • Compromised theory of mind
      • Frith 1992 - proposed individuals with schizophrenia are working with compromised theory of their own and others’ minds
      • Symptoms in those with schizophrenia are result of disorders in three cognitive systems
      • 1 -Disorders of willed action - (voluntary behaviour), can explain disorganised symptoms
      • 2 -Disorders of self monitoring  - can explain symptoms such as delusions of alien control and vocal hallucinations
      • 3 - Disorder of monitoring other persons’ thoughts and intentions -can lead to symptoms such as delusions of persecution


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