GOAL 3- CHEMISTRY

REVISION MINDMAP

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  • Created by: kirsten
  • Created on: 11-02-13 16:53
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  • Goal 3
    • Indigestion
      • Hydrochloric acid is produced in the stomach.
        • Kills bacteria and helps with digestion. Allows digestive enzymes to work properly.
      • Caused by too much acid.
      • Indigestion tablets are a medicine that can neutralise excess stomach acids.
        • They are called alkalis and contain bases that can be dissolved in water.
      • CAUSES OF INDIGESTION
        • 1. Stomach produces acid which kills bacteria and helps digest.
          • 2. If too much acid is produced we get indigestion.
            • 3. Indigestion can be cured by neutralisation.
              • 4. Antacids contain bases (example: calcium carbonate) which neutralise.
    • Neutralisation
      • Acids are neutralised by metal oxides, hydroxides and carbonates to produce salts and water.
        • Carbonates produce carbon dioxide when they react with an acid, this is a gas and causes bubbling.
          • Oxides and hydroxides DO NOT produce a gas when reacted with an acid.
      • Hydrochloric acid produces chloride salts, nitric acid produces nitrate salts and sulphuric acids produce sulphate salts.
        • Hydrochloric acid + copper oxide -> copper chloride + water
          • Nitric acid + sodium hydroxide > sodium nitrate + water
            • Sulphuric acid + copper carbonate > copper sulphate + water + carbon dioxide
    • Electrolysis
      • A process in which electrical energy from a direct current supply breaks down compounds.
      • Test for hydrogen- hold a lit splint in the mouth of a test tube containing hydrogen. The mixture of hydrogen and air in the tube will explode with a squeaky 'pop'.
      • Test for chlorine- hold a piece of damp, blue litmus paper in a test tube containing chlorine. Thne paper will turn red then white, the litmus paper turns red because chlorine dissolves in water to make an acid
        • Chlorine can be obtained from sea water by ELECTROLYSIS.
        • Substances containibg chlorine all have 'CHLORO' or similar in their name (example: Bleach is SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE)
        • Chlorine can be used for swimming pools and drinking water because it kills baxteria. It saves energy because water does not have to be boiled to sterilise it. Drawbacks: cost of producing it, possible accidents which could lead to death as chlorine is toxic.
          • Untitled
        • Water can be decomposed to form hydrogen + oxygen by electrolysis.

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