Independent Behavior

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  • Independent Behavior
    • Resisiting social influence
      • resisting conformity
        • Asch variation of the role of an ally
          • Allen & Levine (1971)
            • individuals all wore glasses
              • consistent - accurate perception
                • conformity dropped in both circumstances
                  • inconsistent - inaccurate perception
                • conformity dropped more
              • inconsistent - inaccurate perception
            • valid social support has the most impact
        • the type of judgement being made
          • moral
            • high psychological costs - Hornsey et al (2003)
            • less likely to conform - belief system
          • physical
            • Asch
        • individual differences
          • men
            • less likely t conform - appear as unique as possible for women
          • women
            • more likely to conform - appear attractive to men
        • differences in locus of control
          • men
            • internal locus of control and focus on challenge
          • women
            • external locus of control and focus on affiliation
          • gender differences
            • individual differences
              • men
                • less likely t conform - appear as unique as possible for women
              • women
                • more likely to conform - appear attractive to men
      • resisting obedience
        • status
        • proximity
          • support with Milgram's research
            • status
        • moral reasoning is important
          • Kohlberg (1969) - Milgram's volunteers given moral dilemma
            • restricted levels of moral reasoning result in more obedience
        • Milgram (1974) - looked at factors that make it more likely that people will obey
          • education
            • less educated = more likely to obey
          • religion
            • protestant = less likely to obey vs catholic
      • locus of control
        • external
          • external influences are the cause, fate/luck
          • Twinge et al (2004)
            • meta-analysis
            • control due to external forces
            • student and child samples 1960 - 2002
            • young Americans
            • externality correlated with negative outcomes
        • internal
          • behavior cause by own efforts and personal decisions
          • active seekers
          • initiative and success
          • achievement oriented
          • resist coercion
          • leadership
        • perception of personal control over behavior
      • social heroism
        • heros in society
          • they possess a 'social imagination'
          • they will resist conforming and obeying in every situation no what the consequences
    • desire for individuation
      • maintaining a sense of own individuality outweighs pressures to conform
      • Snyder + Fromkin (1980)
        • led group of American students to believe their most important attitudes were different from those of 10000 other students
        • another group were told that their most important attitudes were nearly identical to those of 10000 others
          • resisted pressure to conform in conformity study as an attempt to assert individuality
    • desire to maintain control
      • we control events in our lives - doesn't fit with social influence
      • personal freedom and control threatened by obvious group pressure
      • Burger (1992) - people with high need for personal control are more likely to resist conformity pressures than those with lower need
    • prior commitment
      • publicly committing yourself to opinion = less likely to change opinion
      • Deutsch + Gerard (1955) - Asch variation where naive participant asked to voice opinion first then confederates gave unanimous wrong answer and participant did not change their opinion when given the chance
    • time to think and find social support
      • Zimbardo advises us to be mindful of situational demands, engage critical thinking and avoid going on auto pilot
      • Aronson (1999) - one of the best ways to stop going along with social norms is to take time to think about what we are doing and be aware of type of social influence is operating
      • find ally to build confidence and resistance - no longer face majority

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