Indefinite Demonstrative Pronouns

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  • Indefinite Demonstrative Pronouns
    • Are used when referring to abstract concepts or something unnamed or unspecific
    • Ce
      • Can mean "it, "that", "this", "these" or "those"
      • Commonly used with the verb être in the expression "c'est" (plural: "ce sont")
        • C'est le moment ou jamais! --> It's now or never!
        • Ce sont mes couleurs préféré --> These are my favourite colours
      • Can also be used with the double verb constructions pouvoir + être and devoir + être
        • Ce doit être important --> This must be important
        • Ce pourrait être une mauvaise idée --> This might be a bad idea
    • Ceci and Cela
      • Used when followed directly by any verb other than être
        • Ceci va être difficile à croire --> This is going to be difficult to believe
        • Cela doit figurer sur le bon de commande --> This should be on the order form
      • They can be direct and indirect objects
        • S'il te plaît, mets ceci sur la table
        • J'ai pensé à cela hier --> I thought of that yesterday
      • Ceci means "this", while Cela means "that". However...
        • Ceci is replaced by cela unless the distinction between "this" and "that" is important
        • Cela contracts to ça
    • Ça
      • Ceci and cela are usually replaced by ça in informal speech
        • Ça va être difficile à croire --> This is going to be difficult to believe
        • S'il te plaît, mets ça sur la table
      • When it's used as an object of a sentence, it usually translates to "this" or "that"
        • Tu manges ça --> You are eating this
        • Je veux ça --> I want that
      • When it's used as a subject, it can also mean "it"
        • Ça sent bon --> It smells good
        • Ça semble simple --> This seems simple
      • Used when an object pronoun comes before être,
        • Ça m'est égal

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