Increasing risk of coastal flooding and mangroves

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  • Increasing risk of decreasing mangroves and coastal flooding
    • Mangroves
      • trees and shrubs that are vital nurseries for fish and other creatures, rich in wildlife.
      • roots, that are exposed at low tide trap silt and help create new land
      • provide fuel and building materials
      • protection from storm surges in low lying coastal areas
      • example: 2 villages, the one with mangroves, two people died, whereas in the village without, 6000 people died due to the tsunamis
    • Mumbai
      • On India's west coast, 2.8million people are at risk from cyclone and monsoon flooding
        • 1 in 100 annual probability of a storm surge flood event
        • by 2070, numbers of people at risk will have risen to 11million
      • the narrow landmass in surrounded by sea on 3 sides, and the reclamation and development of the area between the islands has encroached onto the wetlands
      • problem:  loss of wetlands due to reclamation, plus the contamination from dumping waste, like the proliferation of slums and destruction of mangroves
    • The Sundarbans, India and Bangladesh
      • many islands in the Indian section have been lost to the sea
        • other islands facing rapid coastal erosion, flooding and salinisation of drinking water
        • by 2020 , the rising sea level and soil erosion threaten to displace more than 30,000 people
      • The Sundarbans
        • network of  tidal waterways, mudflats and small islands of salt tolerant mangroves
        • valuable for its exceptional biodiversity
        • the forest is absorbing carbon dioxide and is helping counter global warming
  • the narrow landmass in surrounded by sea on 3 sides, and the reclamation and development of the area between the islands has encroached onto the wetlands

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