Importance of Ions 

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  • Importance of Ions
    • Nitrogen Cycle
      • Photo -synthesis
        • Plants are producers for an ecosystem.
          • Photosynthesis using carbon dioxide and water
            • Requires water from soil.
              • Leaves- Involves photolysis
                • Attachment of two electrons from a magnesium ion
                  • In chlorophyll
                • Water breals down and produces hydrogen ions
                  • In LDR reduced NADP
                    • In thylakoid
                    • Make ATP in electron transport chain
                      • H+ pumped into the inter- membrane space and forms a electro-chemical gradient
                        • Activate ATPase which combines ADP and PI
            • Produce energy, glucose
      • Productivity in ecosystem is limited by nitrogen in soil.
        • Nitrogen fixing bacteria in plant roots convert nitrogen to ammonia
          • Ammonia is released in the soil
            • Oxidised by nitrifying bacteria
            • Forms nitrite and then nitrate ions
            • Increases nitrogen content
              • Plants can male
                • ATP, DNA, Proteins, Amino Acids
                • forms an important part of nitrogen cycle
                  • Key role in sustaining life
          • Using ATP and NADH
    • Photo -synthesis
      • Plants are producers for an ecosystem.
        • Photosynthesis using carbon dioxide and water
          • Requires water from soil.
            • Leaves- Involves photolysis
              • Attachment of two electrons from a magnesium ion
                • In chlorophyll
              • Water breals down and produces hydrogen ions
                • In LDR reduced NADP
                  • In thylakoid
                  • Make ATP in electron transport chain
                    • H+ pumped into the inter- membrane space and forms a electro-chemical gradient
                      • Activate ATPase which combines ADP and PI
          • Produce energy, glucose
    • Animal Respiration
      • Glucose can come from plants
        • Used for respiration
          • Hydrolysis - ATP release energy an PI can be used to phosphorylate glucose
            • In cytoplasm during glycolysis
    • Nervous Transmission
      • Animal Respiration
        • Glucose can come from plants
          • Used for respiration
            • Hydrolysis - ATP release energy an PI can be used to phosphorylate glucose
              • In cytoplasm during glycolysis
      • Resting Potential - active transport of na+ and k+ into axon - 70 mv
        • Action potential - impulse, NA+ VG Channel open. NA floods in. Depolarises membrane to 40 MV
          • K+ VG Channels open. K leave and repolarise and hyperpolarise the cell
            • Wave of depolarisation allows nerve impulses allowing animal to move effectively
    • Muscle Contraction
      • Nervous Transmission
        • Resting Potential - active transport of na+ and k+ into axon - 70 mv
          • Action potential - impulse, NA+ VG Channel open. NA floods in. Depolarises membrane to 40 MV
            • K+ VG Channels open. K leave and repolarise and hyperpolarise the cell
              • Wave of depolarisation allows nerve impulses allowing animal to move effectively
      • Ca ions binds to troponin. causes tropomyosin to uncover binding sites
        • AM cross bridge formed and actin slide into myosin
          • Ca ions active ATPase which hydrolyses ATP to ADP and PI. energy released for break of cross bridges.
            • Causes a contraction of skeleta; muscle allowing movement
              • Allows control of light entering eye
              • All require nervous Co-Ordination making ions more important
                • Allows control of light entering eye
                • Allows control of blood flow for homeostasis
                  • Causes a contraction of skeleta; muscle allowing movement
                    • All require nervous Co-Ordination making ions more important
                      • Allows control of blood flow for homeostasis
                        • Ca ions active ATPase which hydrolyses ATP to ADP and PI. energy released for break of cross bridges.
      • Haemoglobin
        • Muscle Contraction
          • Ca ions binds to troponin. causes tropomyosin to uncover binding sites
            • AM cross bridge formed and actin slide into myosin
          • Contraction of intercostal muscles allow for ventilations
            • Brings oxygen for gas exchange. need a high concentration gradient so oxygen is rapidly removed
              • Iron ions are attached to haem groups and allow 4 oxygens to attach
                • High partial pressure oxygen attaches and when ventricle contracts haemoglobin pumped to low partial pressure so o2 released
                  • More oxygen for aerobic respiration

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