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  • Impacts of climate change on the arctic
    • the melting of ice on the arctic ocean
      • make the sea less saline and warmer
        • this would make the arctic conveyor weaker
          • disrupt the movement of the warm gulf streams that normally flow northwards.
          • causing dramatic cooling of the north-western Europe
      • 10-15% less sea ice coverage over the past 30 years
        • leading to a reduced protection of the land and an increase in coastal erosion
          • 140 villages been moved
        • increase sea shipping opportunities
        • Arctic sea will be ice free in the summer
          • allowing shorter routes from Europe to japan
            • safer because less risk of piracy
          • Fishermen will be more successful
          • migratory species will be affected because they will lose their breeding ground eg whales
        • polar bears, walruses and seals depend on the ice for their habitat
          • face extinction
    • Impacts on natural systems
      • vegetation shifts
        • temperate forest will replace tundra
          • more trees and a higher biodiversity
            • higher chance of forest fires
            • increase plant productivity
          • larger diversity of animal species will located here
          • Caribou will lose their habitat
        • increase carbon sinks but methane release will increase carbon stores
      • thawing permafrost
        • if temperatures rose by 3C then all of Greenland would melt and sea levels would rise by 7m
        • 40% of permafrost is expected to thaw
          • especially in Siberia
          • will release large amounts of methane
            • positive feedback
        • create new wetlands
          • effect Arctic char and lake trout
          • increase risks of drowning
        • disrupt transport, buildings and infrastructure
      • ultra violet impacts
        • increase due to the reduction of snow and ice which have a high albedo
        • increase cancer and cataract sufferers
    • impacts on society
      • loss of hunting grounds and food insecurity for indigenous people
      • herd animals will change their routes eg reindeer
      • decline of northern fisheries eg Artic char but increase in marine fisheries eg arrival of cod
      • enhanced agriculture and forestry
      • exposure of land has increased exploitation of oil and gas
    • warming 2-3 times faster than the rest of the world
    • Albedo of the artic cools the rest of the world


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