The Impacts of World War Two 1939-45

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  • Impact of WW2 1939-45
    • Morale
      • Shifting fortunes of war affected the morale of the public, e.g. living standards and the intensity of bombings on the Reich from the Allies
      • Hitler became increasingly distant, so Goebbels became the voice of morale
        • 1943 - 'Total War' speeches to inspire the people
        • Earned true respect and popularity due to his courage and enthusiasm throughout the bombings
        • He knew that the people needed to forget their troubles
          • Promoted feel-good movies, e.g. The Adventures of Baron Munchausen (1943)
          • One of his films - Kolberg (1944-45) recreated a heroic German resistance in 1806 - this was hugely popular, and the film mattered more to people that the reality of war.
    • Decline in living standards
      • 1939 - Official food ration introduced for ordinary civilian Germans
        • 2650kg per day - i.e., 10kg of bread/month, under 3.5kg of meat per month
      • All forms of consumer goods restricted
        • 1940 - Sales of furniture 40% lower than in peace time
    • Propaganda
      • Germany began to lose in 1943 - clearly propaganda was not doing enough
        • Himmler  increased doses of terror to anyone who doubted German victory or tried to use to Black market to increase trade
      • Even if it did not win the war it kept people loyal to the regime
  • Decline in living standards
    • 1939 - Official food ration introduced for ordinary civilian Germans
      • 2650kg per day - i.e., 10kg of bread/month, under 3.5kg of meat per month
    • All forms of consumer goods restricted
      • 1940 - Sales of furniture 40% lower than in peace time
  • Throughout the war rations declined further - due to severe cuts in 1942 there was a severe foo crisis
    • Potatoes became the basic foodstuff - they were the only thing that could be accessed easily.
  • 1945 - Meat ration was just 0.5kg a month
    • Throughout the war rations declined further - due to severe cuts in 1942 there was a severe foo crisis
      • Potatoes became the basic foodstuff - they were the only thing that could be accessed easily.
  • Bread availability declined
    • 1941 - Clothes purchasing was down to 25% of what it was during peace times
      • Terrible availability of new homes
        • Overcrowded homes were common in German cities
          • Though in 1937 almost 2 billion new homes had been constructed, but by 1942 thousands were being destroyed by the RAF
            • Terrible availability of new homes
          • Devastating effects caused by the Allied bombings
            • Impact of WW2 1939-45
              • Morale
                • Shifting fortunes of war affected the morale of the public, e.g. living standards and the intensity of bombings on the Reich from the Allies
                • Hitler became increasingly distant, so Goebbels became the voice of morale
                  • 1943 - 'Total War' speeches to inspire the people
                  • Earned true respect and popularity due to his courage and enthusiasm throughout the bombings
                  • He knew that the people needed to forget their troubles
                    • Promoted feel-good movies, e.g. The Adventures of Baron Munchausen (1943)
                    • One of his films - Kolberg (1944-45) recreated a heroic German resistance in 1806 - this was hugely popular, and the film mattered more to people that the reality of war.
              • Propaganda
                • Germany began to lose in 1943 - clearly propaganda was not doing enough
                  • Himmler  increased doses of terror to anyone who doubted German victory or tried to use to Black market to increase trade
                • Even if it did not win the war it kept people loyal to the regime
            • Until 1942 impact of bombings was minimal
            • 1944 - Germany experienced a small rest from bombings as the Bomber Command helped with the invasion of France, but the next year bombing intensified
              • By this time there wee over 5000 bombers in use
                • Dropped over 500,000 bombs on Germany between June and October 1944, reducing many towns to rubble
                  • Trains stopped running
                  • Even the river  Dortmund-Ems was drained of water
                  • Coal was unavailable and heating for houses that had not been damaged was non existant
          • By 1942 more heavy bombers were used by the RAF and the Air Chief Marshal Harris wanted to show that he could win the war - nicknamed 'bomber'
            • Devastating effects caused by the Allied bombings
              • Until 1942 impact of bombings was minimal
              • 1944 - Germany experienced a small rest from bombings as the Bomber Command helped with the invasion of France, but the next year bombing intensified
                • By this time there wee over 5000 bombers in use
                  • Dropped over 500,000 bombs on Germany between June and October 1944, reducing many towns to rubble
                    • Trains stopped running
                    • Even the river  Dortmund-Ems was drained of water
                    • Coal was unavailable and heating for houses that had not been damaged was non existant
            • May 1942 -  Cologne suffered the first 1000-ton bomber
            • May 1942 - Focus of bombings on Essen and the Ruhr  - caused huge amounts of human and economic damage
            • July 1942 - Bombings focused of Humburg. 40,000 died, 125,000 injured and over 50% of housing destroyed
          • 5000 made homeless, 474 killed and 5000 injured
            • May 1942 -  Cologne suffered the first 1000-ton bomber
          • After this it was Berlin, however the damage was not as great as that of Hamburg
            • July 1942 - Bombings focused of Humburg. 40,000 died, 125,000 injured and over 50% of housing destroyed
          • Reduced many towns to rubble

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