respiratory and cardiovascular diseases

  • Created by: Elle99
  • Created on: 23-11-17 09:22
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  • impact of training on lifestyle diseases
    • cardiovascular system
      • CVD
        • all diseases of the heart and blood circulation
          • atherosclerosis
            • fatty plaque builds up in walls of arteries causing walls to harden and lumen to narrow
              • reduces blood flow, increase risk of blood clots
              • arterial walls are thick, reducing ability to vasodilator and vasoconstrict
                • hypertension
                  • blood pressure above 140/90mmgh
                    • resulting in major strain on the heart
          • coronary heart disease
            • fatty plaque builds up in coronary arteries, causing them o narrow and reduce blood supple
              • heart attack or angina
                • partial blockage of a coronary artery causing chest pain, lack of o2 to heart
          • heart attack
            • piece of faytty plaque breaks away cause a blood clot
          • Stroke
            • 3 types
              • ischaemic stroke: blockage of o2 to brain
              • haemorrhage stroke: bleed in or around brain
              • TIA: mini ischaemic stroke, symptoms last for less than 24 hrs
                • temporary blockage
            • caused by blockage in a verbal artsy
            • caused by blood vessel bursting within or on surface on brain
      • MAIN CAUSES
        • sedentary lifestyle
          • inactive
        • smoking
          • damages lining of arteries
            • fatty deposits, narrowing
        • obsesity
          • cholesterol deposit lead to narrowing
      • SOLUTIONS
        • regular training and lifestyle choices
        • reduce levels of blood lipids  and overall cholesterol
          • increase proportion of HDL to LDL cholesterol
            • slow development go artherosclerosis
        • prevent hardening and loss of elasticity in arterial walls
          • due to vasoconstriction and vasodilation
            • slow atherosclerosis and hypertension
        • decrease blood viscosity and resistance of blood flow
          • help prevent blood clots and reduce blood pressure
        • increase coronary circulation
          • coronary arteries gain increased diameter and density
            • reduce heart attack
        • cardiac hypertrophy
          • increased ventricular contractility
            • increase SV
              • increase efficiency of heart
                • lower resting HR
                  • less strain on the heart
                    • lower blood pressure
                      • reduce heart attack
        • decrease body fat
          • help to manage weight
            • reduce strain on heart
        • increased blood flow
          • increased oxygen transportation
            • easier to exercise and reduce onset fatigue
              • reduce strain on heart, lower blood pressure
                • increased EDV
                  • more blood enters ventricles
                • decreased ESV
                  • complete emptying
        • reduce risk of stroke by 27%
    • respiratory system
      • respiratory disease
        • one or more diseases of the airways or alveoli
        • asthma
          • constriction of the bronchial airways and inflammation of the mucous membranes
            • restrict airways and limit breathing
          • symptoms
            • shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing, tight chest
          • triggers
            • drying of airway membranes, presence of an allergen (fumes)
            • exercise induced asthma
            • air is cold and dry ( winter sports)
          • control
            • inhalers, warmups, respiratory muscle training
              • breathing exercises to increase strength and endurance of respiratory muscles
        • COPD
          • chronic, obstructive, pulmonary, disease
            • several conditions of the lungs
              • air ways inflamed and narrows
                • leading to
                  • thickening of bronchiole walls
                  • increased mucus production
                  • damage to alveoli
                  • decrease lung tissue elasticity
          • symptoms
            • shortness of breath/mucuscough/ wheezing/ tight chest
              • chest infections and reduced lung capcacity
          • causes
            • smoking, asthma, long term inflammation of airways, decreased elasticity and permanent narrowing
          • treatment
            • exercise and medication
      • effect of training
        • increased respiratory strength
          • decreases respiratory effort
            • alleviates symptoms of asthma
        • decrease resting and sub max breathing frequency
          • reduce onset of fatigue
        • inspiratory muscle training- increase air flow and alleviate breathlessness
          • reduce necessity for medication and enhancing quality of life
          • strengthens respiratory muscles
            • inspiration
              • REST: external intercostal
              • exercise: rectus abdominus
            • expiration
              • rest: internal intercostal
              • exercise: pectoralis major
        • maintain full use of lung tissue and elasticity
          • crease risk of infection
        • increase SA of alveoli and pulmonary capillaries,
          • maximising efficiency of gaseous exchange
            • and health of respiratory membranes
              • internal/ external respiration
                • steeper diffusion gradient

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