Impact of the First World War on Germany

  • Created by: evicb
  • Created on: 07-11-19 13:40
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  • Impact of the First World War on Germany
    • Social
      • Deepened divisions in Germany with huge gaps between the rich and poor
        • was made worse by restrictions placed on workers earnings during war, while factory owners made large profits
      • during the war, women worked in factories
        • many saw this as damaging family values
    • Psychological
      • news of impending defeat was a shock, despite the naval blockade
        • army commanders had been telling the people that they were close to victory
      • navy disagreed with the armistice and ordered the fleet to sea
        • This led to mutiny, followed by establishment of Soviets in many German cities
    • Political
      • 9 Nov the Kaiser abdicated
        • power went to a council of peoples representatives, under Ebert.
      • Ebert did not want a revolution like in Russia because it would
        • lead to a civil war
        • disrupt demobilisation
        • disrupt the distribution of food
        • hinder peace negotiations
      • Ebert was able to prevent a revolution because
        • He maintained support of the army by not reforming it or creating a new force
        • He kept the support of the industrialists, who negotiated with trade unions, which gave workers an 8 hour day and established workers councils in large companies
        • Working class was divided between communists (KPD) and SPD who wants parliamentary system
    • Economic
      • Industrial production was only two-thirds that of 1913 in 1918
      • National income was one-third that of 1913
      • There were 600,000 widows and 2 million children without fathers
        • by 1925, the state was spending 1/3 of its budget on war pensions


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