Mind map for the key components of Immunity, notes taken from James Torrance Higher Human Biology textbook

  • Created by: chloe
  • Created on: 25-04-13 13:20
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  • Immunity
    • Innate
      • inborn/unchanging
      • defence you are born with -> skin, cilia etc
      • phagocytosis
        • process by which foreign bodies are engulfed and destroyed
        • phagocyte
          • monocyte - type of white blood cell
          • macrophage - large cells derived from  monocytes, found in connective tissue
          • cytoplasm of a phagocyte contains a rich supply of lysosomes
            • some fuse with the vacuole and release their enzymes
            • contain digestive enzymes
    • Acquired
      • do not have this when we are born, it is acquired through time
      • antigens
        • complex molecules which are recognised as alien by the bodies lymphotcytes
        • the antigens presence stimulates lymphocytes to produce antibodies
      • antibodies
        • Y-shaped molecule
        • the body has thousands of different types of lymphocyte, each capable of responding to one specific antigen and producing the appropriate antibody
        • each arm has a receptor site which is specific to a particular antigen
    • Naturally Acquired
      • B cells
        • some become memory cells
        • some mass produce required antibody
        • antibodies pass into lymph and blood plasma
          • they combine at their receptor sites with antigen, making it harmless
        • they multiply rapidly
        • stimulated by presence of antigen
        • humoral response
      • T cells
        • Helper T
          • patrol the body and on recognising alien antigens on the surfaces of viruses they activate killer T cells and macrophages
          • do not kill pathogens directly
        • Killer T
          • destroys infected cell by coming into direct contact with it and releasing a chemical which perforates the cell membrane
          • cell mediated response
          • acts against cancer cells and brings about the rejection of transplant tissue


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