Immunity part 1

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  • IMMUNITY 1
    • Pathogen
      • A micro-organism that can cause disease
      • 4 types
        • Bacteria, Fungi, Virus, Protist
      • How does a pathogen harm us?
        • Kill/damage cells
        • Release toxins
    • Antigen
      • A protein receptor that is capable of inducing an immune response
    • Ways to spread pathogens
      • Air
        • Droplets in the air are inhaled which contain pathogens
      • Vectors
        • Animals carry pathogens
      • Contaminatedfood
        • Pathogens enter through digestive system
          • Raw, undercooked or contaminated food
      • Water
        • Fungal spores or pathogens in water (drinking or for plants)
      • Direct contact
        • Common in plants, direct contact of the skin, blood-borne pathogens
    • Defence mechanisms
      • Non-specific
        • Phagocytosis
        • Physical barrier e.g.Skin
      • Specific
        • Cell-mediated     (T cells)
        • Humoral (B cells)
    • White blood cells
      • Phagocytes
      • T cells
        • Killer T cells (Cytotoxic cells)
        • Helper T cells
        • Memory T cells
      • B cells
        • Plasma cells
        • Memory B cells

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