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  • Immunisation & Vacination
    • Vaccines and boosters
      • Vaccines in early childhood can give protection against many diseases.
      • Sometimes more than on vaccine is given at once, like the MMR triple vaccine against mumps, measles, and rubella
      • Some vaccine boosters are need, because the immune response "memory" weakens over time.
        • For example, Anti-tetanus injections may need to be repeated every ten years
    • Mutations of bacteria and viruses
      • Some bacteria and viruses mutate very quickly.
        • This means that vaccines developed to protect against these pathogens no longer work so effectively
          • When this happens, an epidemic occurs where lots of people become ill and infected and sometimes die.
            • For example bird flu.
            • A new vaccine has to be developed to protect against these new forms of pathogen
    • Antibiotics
      • Antibiotics are substances that kill bacteria or stop their growth.
      • They dont work against viruses; it is difficult to develop drugs that kill viruses without damaging the body tissue.
      • Common anitibiotics
        • Penicillin
          • Breaks down cell walls
          • The first antibiotic discovered in 1928
        • Erythromycin
          • Stops protein synthesis
        • Neomycin
          • Stop protein synthesis
        • Vancomycin
          • Stops protein synthesis
        • Ciprofloxacin
          • Stops DNA replication
      • Bacterial strains can develip resistance to antibiotics, this happens during natural selection


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