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  • Immunisation and Vacination
    • White blood cells
      • White blood cells do three things
        • 1. Engulfs the microbe
        • 2. Produce antibodies to neutralise the microbe.
        • 3. Produce antitoxins to neutralise the toxins released by the microbe
      • There are two types of white blood cell
        • Lympocytes
          • Pathogens contain certain chemicals that are foreign to the body and are called antigens. Each lymphocyte carries a specific type of antibody - a protein that has a chemical 'fit' to a certain antigen.
            • Lympocytes may also release antitoxins that stick to the appropriate toxin and stop it damaging the body.
          • Antibodies neutralise pathogens in a number of ways.
            • They bind two pathogens and damage or destroy them.
              • Then they coat pathogens which clumps them together so they are easily ingested by phagocytes.
        • Phagocytes
          • Phagocytes can easily pass through blood vessel wals into the surrounding tissue and move towards pathogens or toxins
            • Then they ingest and absorb the pathogens or toxins, and release an enzymes to destroy them
          • How they fight pathogens
    • Vaccinations
      • People can be immunised against a pathogen through vaccination. Different vaccines are need for different pathogens.
      • Vaccination involves putting a small amount of an inactive or weakened form of a pathogen into the body.
      • Vaccines include..
        • Dead pathogens
        • Live pathogens treated to make them harmless.
        • Harmless fragments of the pathogen
        • Toxins produced by pathogens
          • Although it contains toxins produced by pathogens it is only weak version of a pathogen which means a person is not in danger of a developing disease.
      • How vaccine works
        • Vaccines in early childhood can give protection against many serious diseases. Sometimes more than one vaccine is given at a time to prevent diseases such as measles
    • Mutations of bacteria and viruses.
      • Some bacteria are viruses mutate very quickly. This means that vaccines developed to protect against these pathogens no longer work so effectively. When this happens, an epidemic occurs where lots of people become ill and often die.
        • A recent example is the bird flu which has a new vaccine to protect against these forms of pathogen


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