The Body's Response to Infection

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  • Immune Response
    • Specific
      • T cells
        • T helper cells
          • When activated they stimulate B cells & enhance activity of phagocytes, clones to create t helper cells & t memory cells.
        • T killer cells
          • Destroy any cells with antigens on surface, includes infected body cells & also tissues transplanted from another person
      • B cells
        • Secrete ANTIBODIES in response to antigens. Antibodies bind to surface of antigens and act as label for phagocytes to recognise and destroy.
    • Non-Specific
      • Antimicrobial proteins
        • INTERFERON - virus infected cells produce this protein. It prevents viruses from multiplying
      • Phagocytosis
        • Neutrophils
          • Leave capillaries & ingest/destroy bacteria. Lasts only a few days
        • Macrophages
          • Monocytes circulate the blood for a day or two before they move into the tissue. They then become macrophages and engulf bacteria, foreign matter & cell debris.
      • Inflamation
        • Damaged white blood cells release HISTAMINE, causing arterioles to dilate, increasing blood flow to area. Also increases permeability of capillaries, leading to OEDEMA.
      • Lysozyme
        • Kill bacteria on surface by breaking down cell wall


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