Immune response

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  • Created by: Buffya
  • Created on: 31-05-13 23:18
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  • Immune response
    • Communication between cells
      • Cell signalling is the communication between cells that allows effective coordination of a response
      • The first signalling is when the foreign antigen is detected by body cells
      • Lysosomes will fight the invader so part of the pathogen ends up on the host
        • Acts as a distress signal
        • Acts as a marker to indicate cell is infected and T killer cells can destroy this cell
      • Histamine released by infected cells makes capillaries leaky which lead pathogen to lymph nodes
        • This is where macrophages are where they engulf the pathogen. They don't fully digest it
          • Expose antigens on their own surface. They become antigen-presenting cells
      • Cytokines are chemical messengers that bind to specific receptors
        • Macrophage release monokines that attract neutrophils by chemotaxis
        • Macrophage release monokines to stimulate B cells to release antibodies
        • T cells, B cells and macrophage release interleukins which stimulate B and T cells
        • Many cells release interferon which can inhibit virus replication and stimulate T killer cells
    • Specific response
      • Pathogen detected by specific T or B lymphoctes
        • This can be through macrophage turning into an antigen-presenting cell, the infected cell or antigen
        • Clonal selection is the selection of the correct B and T lymphocytes
          • Then clonal expansion takes place where they clone by mitosis
            • Bone marrow
              • B cells differentiate into
                • B memory cells that remain in the blood
                • Plasma cells which manufacture and release antibodies
              • T cells mature in thymus gland and differentiate into
                • T helper cells which release cytokines to stimulate B cells to divide and phagocytosis
                • T killer cells which kill infected body cells
                • T memory cells that remain in the blood


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