Immobilised Enzymes

  • Created by: Lillith7
  • Created on: 21-01-21 15:46
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  • Immobilised Enzymes
    • Advantages
      • Enzymes can be easily recovered from the product allowing them to be REUSED
      • Enzymes are MORE STABLE at higher temps and a wider range of pH values so less chance of denaturing
      • A MIXTURE OF ENZYMES (with different optimun temps and pH values) can be used together
      • Enzymes can be easily added or removed from reaction giving GREATER CONTROL to avoid contamination and ensuring product is enzyme free
    • Enzyme molecules bound to an inert insoluble material, over which the substrate molecule moves
    • Types of immobilisation
        • Enzyme is attached by weak forces to the outside of an inert material such as a polymeric matrix
        • Enzymes are trapped within polymers (a gel) such as alginate beads
    • Disadvantages
      • Not all ACTIVE SITES can be accessed when adhered to a inert material
      • Need to INCREASE ENZYME CONC. to compensate for less active sites per enzyme
    • Enzymes in industrial processes
      • Some enzyme properties, e.g. sensitivity to pH and temp, makes them inefficient to use in industrial processes
        • To overcome this enzymes are immobilised
      • Why?
        • catalysts thus speed up reactions
        • can be reused
        • act on specific substrates to produce specific products
        • biodegradable so eco-friendly
      • Examples of industrial enzymes
        • LACTASE
          • Production of lactose-free dairy products, e.g. milk
            • For lactose-intolerance
          • catalyses hydrolysis of lactose into glucose and galactose
            • Immobilised in column and milk poured in at top and lactose-free milk collected at bottom
        • PECTINASE
          • extraction and clarification of fruit juices
          • catalyses hydrolysis of pectin (polysaccharide found in cell walls) into smaller molecules
            • Cells separate from each other making juice easier to collect
        • PROTEASE
          • Used in biological detergent
            • also AMYLASE and LIPASE used
          • catalyse hydrolysis of proteins into amino acids
            • Immobilised into granules that breakdown protein stains, e.g. blood


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