immigration in gilded age america

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  • immigrants living in US
    • some had relatives already in US which helped settle in
      • others not so easy + targets for exploitation
    • some move in land to try agriculture but most stay in cities
      • many live togetehr and share communities, many live in family/group networks, many rely on these to find jobs upon arrival
        • even those who find jobs live in poor conditions in overcrowding cities
    • older more established residents leave= dont like new residents
      • move to nicer areas, take their money with them, conditions in prior neighbourhood deterioate (china town_ as left with unwealthy
    • low paid jobs and poor conditions, face predjudice, seen as economic threat as willing to work for nothing
      • also threat to established law+order as come from countires that aren't like US or Britian in western europe
    • issue with religion= anit-catholic (targeted mainly at irish) grows as population diversifies
      • Darwinian ideas about superior and inferior races applied to diff social groups= new immigrants blamed for labour disputes
    • groups spring up to protect America from imagined catholic dominance
      • American protective Association = limit immigration, employment of catholics and promote teaching of American language
    • public schools expand significantly to try standarise the American experience
    • American gov attempts to limit immigration= not so much concerned abotu catholics and jews
      • 1875= prostitues and convicts, 1882= lunatics, 1890s illiterates, 1882 chinese exclusion act
    • chinese suffer= look significantly different, 1882 exclusion act, made permanent in 1904 stopping all as sense of threat and different way of life
      • worked really hard and made everyone else look bad
    • new political party 1890s, formed as result of changes of urbanisaiton, industrialisation and immigration, formed by American farmers.

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