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  • Ideology
    • Gramsci
      • Sees the ruling class ideological domination of society as hegemony.
      • Argues the working class can develop ideas that challenge ruling-class hegemony.
      • Workers have a dual consciousness - mixture of ruling-class ideologies and ideas they develop from their own direct experience of expolitation.
      • Requieres a policitical aprty of 'organic intellectuals' - workers who developed a class consciousness adn sread it throughout the working class.
      • Abercrombie et al - argues it is economic factors such as the fear of unemployment that keep workers from rebelling.
    • Mannhiem
      • All belief systems are a one-sided worldview. Distinguished into two broad types:
        • Ideological thought - justifies keeping things as they are and reflects the position of the ruling class.
        • Utopian thought - justifies social change and reflects the position and interests of the working class and offers a vision of how society could be organised.
      • Sees these worldviews as creations of groups of intellectuals who attach themselves to particular classes, thus as they represent particular groups and not society.
      • Sees this as a source of conflict as each class produces opposed ideas that justify their claims.
      • The solution for this is to detach the intellectuals from the classes they represent and create a free-floating intelligentsia.
        • This stands above conflict so they can blend elements of different partial ideologies and utopias to arrive to a 'total worldview'.
      • However, many politicial ideologies are diametrically opposed so it is hard to blend these views.
    • Feminism
      • Marks - ideas from science have been used to justify excluding women from education.
      • Male doctors, scientists etc. see educating females leading to the creation of a new race of puny and unfeminine females and disqualify women from their true vocation.
      • Ideologies in science which are embodied in religious beliefs see women as inferior.
        • E.g. many religions see women unclean and impure due to childbirth and menstruation.
      • Before the rise of monotheistic religions, matriarchal religions with female deities were widespread with female priests and goddesses.


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