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  • Identity and Hybrid Identity
    • Identity
      • Identity- How we see ourselves and how others see us- individual identity, group identity.
      • What makes up identity- sexuality, Location, Nationality, Class, Gender, Ethnicity.
    • Ascribed Identity
      • There are some parts of our identity which are given or ascribed without any choice.
        • Age, Gender, Location, Nationality, Ethnicity, Social Class, First language and Sexuality.
    • Achieved Identity
      • Other parts of a persons identity are chosen or achieved,
        • Leisure based identity, social status positions, religious beliefs, family role, good you buy, relationship status and belonging to particular subcultures.
    • Marxists Views- Class is still an important role of explaining why, for example some (the middle class) do so well at school. Society remains incredibly in equal so class might still be useful in explaining these inequalities.
    • Structure- System you are in. Idea that it is ascribed and people cant change there identity eg Marxists
    • Agency- you the person. Idea that individuals and groups can change aspects of their identity eg Neo Marxism
    • Marxism
      • Believe that two main social classes have different relationships to economy. Marx, your social class was the single most important part of persons identity, Bourgeoisie (capitalism) only want money so exploit proletariat.
    • Neo- Marxism
      • Updated Marxist Views. Class is important but individuals have more say in shaping identity. Sub cultures allow people to rebel against positions and new forms of groups.
    • Postmodernism
      • In the past identity was stable and relatively straight forward. Identity was based on social class, gender and nationality. Post-modern Society today argue that identity is more complex and you can choose on a individual level. Can be based on a whole range of complex factors- ethnicity, sexuality, consumption and lifestyle choices.
        • People where more scared and its complex. wont allow ourself to be open and its created by yourself. We have a global identity so we are inter-connected with different cultures and nationalities.
    • Hybrid Identity
      • Multicultural london english, white wannabes, ethnicity, nationality and identity.
        • Graffiti and musical fusions in Latin america.
        • Hip-hop in Japan. Sell products that inform identities.
      • New from of identity has emerged as a result of combination of different types of identity. Also linked to globalisation.
      • Form from different identity overlapping in migration populations and new form of ethnicity emerge as a result. Hybrid identities often reflect power relationships.
        • Mass media has been globalised, Cheap air travel and Multiculturalism has led to new home-based experiences (food and drink)
      • Agency, Globalisation, Mass Media, Post-modernism, Increasing Population Movement
    • Ethnic identity- Common Decent, Language, Geographical Links, Racism, History, Religion, Traditional and Rituals.
    • CASE STUDY: Ghumann (1999) Maintaing family honour, choice of marriage, Religious training,  Social conforminty in terms of obedience, extended family community.
    • CASE STUDY: Modood (1997) African Caribbean youth celebrated their skin colour as an expression og Black pride and power in reaction to their experience of racial prejudice and discrimination from white society.
      • Dress code, Diet, Education, Religious codes, Political consciousness, male-female relations and family lifestyles.
    • CASE STUDY: Sewell (1996) Celebrity driven consumerist culture, peer group pressure, negative experience of education, lack of  positive father figure, negative experience of life on the streets and perception that society is racist.
    • CASE STUDY: Johal (1998) Focused on second and third generation British Asians and found that some have dual hybrid identity. Inherit there Asians identity and adopt a British one.
    • British Idenitity- key infulence from Guibernau and Goldbatt
      • Monarchy, British Empire, War, Religion, Language, Geography, symbols, political and legal systems.
      • Decline of British Identity- Celtic Identity, Multiculturalism, English identity, Globalisation.
      • How British socialised- Schudesn (1994)
        • Education, Families, National Rituals, Mass Media, Language,  Mass production of fashion and taste.


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