Indentifying and Analysing Substances C3.4

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  • IDENTIFYING AND ANALYISING SUBSTANCES
    • FLAME TESTS
      • Lithium Chloride =RED
      • Sodium Chloride =YELLOW
      • Potassium Chloride =LILAC
      • Calcium Chloride =BRICK RED
      • Barium Chloride =GREEN
    • ADD NaOH SOLOUTION (PPT= PRECIPITATE)
      • Aluminium 3+ ion=WHITE PPT THAT IS SOLUBLE (DISSOLVES) IN EXCESS NaOH
      • Calcium 2+ ion=THICK WHITE PPT
      • Copper 2+ ion= BLUE PPT
      • Iron 2+ ion= GREEN/ BROWN PPT
      • Iron 3+ ion= ORANGE/BROWN PPT (RUST)
      • Magnesium 2+ ion= THICK WHITE PPT
    • CARBONATE AND SULFATE TESTS
      • Carbonate ion (CO3) charge of 2-
        • Add a small amount if dilute acid to substance
          • CO2 produced
        • Carbonate ion + dilute acid = FIZZING (EFFERVESCENCE)
        • METAL CARBONATE + ACID ---> METAL SALT + WATER +CO2
          • MCO3 + HA---> MA +H2O +CO2
        • Confirmatory test= pass gas through limewater (Calcium hydroxide solution)
          • Na2CO3 + 2HCl ---> 2NaCl + H2O + CO2
      • Sulfate ion (SO4) charge of 2-
        • Add a few drops of Barium Chloride to substance
        • Sulfate ion + Barium Chloride = WHITE PPT
          • Unlike Barium Chloride, the BARIUM SULFATE is INSOLUBLE
        • SULFATE + BARIUM CHLORIDE ----> METAL CHLORIDE + BARIUM SULFATE
          • MSO4 + BaCl ---> MCl + BaSO4
            • Mg SO4 + BaCl2 ---> MgCl2 + BaSO4
    • HALIDE TESTS
      • Halide ions (GROUP 7) can be detected using SILVER NITRATE
      • The SILVER HALIDE that forms in the reaction with SILVER NITRATE is insoluble and the colour of the ppt identifies the halide ions present
      • Chloride = WHITE PPT
      • Bromide = CREAM PPT
      • Iodide = YELLOW PPT

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