Iceland and Chile Volcanic Eruptions

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  • Icelandic Volcanic Eruption (Eyjafjoll) and Chile's Volcanic Eruption (Chaiten)
    • Background
      • Eyjafjoll is located in Iceland along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
        • Occurred on a constructive plate margin where the Eruasian plate and the North American plate are moving away from each other.
          • Began to erupt on 20th March the main eruption was on 19th April 2010
        • Chaiten volcano is found on a destructive plate margin where the Nazca plate was sub ducted under the South American Plate
          • First time the volcano erupted in 9,400 years.
            • Happened in 2008
    • Economic Impacts
      • Iceland
        • Six flightless days in total with 17,000 flights cancelled per day.
          • London had a loss of £102 million which then had a knock on affect on businesses.
            • Iceland
              • Six flightless days in total with 17,000 flights cancelled per day.
                • London had a loss of £102 million which then had a knock on affect on businesses.
                • This then led to a loss of $2 billion!
                • Tourism shares fell by 4%
                  • Oil company's also lost out as oil was not needed for fuel. There were 1.87 million barrels of fuel that were not needed.
              • This then led to a loss of $2 billion!
              • Tourism shares fell by 4%
                • Oil company's also lost out as oil was not needed for fuel. There were 1.87 million barrels of fuel that were not needed.
                • Chile
                  • Flights were diverted.
                    • There were dozens of international flights cancelled and hundreds of domestic flights cancelled.
                  • 80-90% of the town was destroyed with 20-30% being completely damaged.
                • 20 farms destroyed by flooding
              • Social Impacts
                • Iceland
                  • 700 people had to be evacuated.
                  • Hundreds of thousands were stranded in countries
                  • No deaths
                • Chile
                  • 1 death that was related to stress.
                    • Both countries had very low death rates!
                      • No deaths
                  • Schools had to be closed which would mean that children lost out on education.
              • Environmental Impacts
                • Iceland
                  • 150km Icecap melted which will have contributed to major local flooding.
                  • 11km ash plume rose in the air which was the reason for the flights to be disrupted.
                  • Large lava flows dominated the west side of the volcano.
                  • Fine anticyclonic weather over Britain made the impacts worse for the UK.
                • Chile
                  • Volcanic ash cloud that rose 17km in the air
                    • Larger than the Icelandic volcano - why less impact?
                      • 11km ash plume rose in the air which was the reason for the flights to be disrupted.
                  • Pyroclastic flows dominated
                  • Rivers were blocked
              • Responses
                • Long term
                  • Iceland
                    • Further research is now carried out on the volcano.
                  • Chile
                    • Volcanic Disaster Assistance Programme now monitor the volcano
                • Short Term
                  • Iceland
                    • The evacuation of 700 people
                    • Roads were bulldozed for flash floods
                    • Emergency services were prepared
                  • Chile
                    • 4000 people were evacuated.
            • Flights were disrupted in both countries and areas that then had global effects.
              • However there was a bigger global impact from Eyjafjoll's eruption.
              • Flights were diverted.
                • There were dozens of international flights cancelled and hundreds of domestic flights cancelled.

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