Ice on the Land

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  • Created by: GBushell
  • Created on: 07-04-14 14:53
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  • Ice on the Land
    • Glacial Processes and Landforms
      • A CORRIE is an armchair shaped hollow, high on a mountain with a steep back and side walls. May be filled with and Corrie Lake or Tarn.
      • PYRAMIDAL PEAKS have a sharp summit and steep slopes on at least 3 sides. May form where 3 or more corries erode back so far to form aretes.
      • U-SHAPED VALLEYs have steep sides and a wide, flat floor. Usually straight and deep.
      • The glacier takes the easiest route down the hill and when it retreats it leaves a GLACIAL TROUGH. (may have a RIBBON LAKE in it)
        • The glacier also erodes the NTERLOCKING SPURS to leave TRUNCATED SPURS.
          • The river tributaries have been left high up creating hanging valley (possibly with a waterfall).
      • Erosion
        • PLUCKING - a glacier moves over bedrock and sticks to loose rocks, pulls them away and deposits them later on.
        • ABRASION - rocks stuck to the bottom of the ice (grinding over the bedrock) leaving scratches called STRIATIONS.
      • FREEZE-THAW WEATHERING - cracks and joints in rock fill with water, freezes and expands, pushing the rocks apart. Repeated freezing and thawing widens the crack, eventually rocks fall off
    • Glaciers at Work
      • a glacier also pushes rock in front of it down the valley - BULLDOZING
        • material moved or carried by a glacier is called MORRAINE
      • GLACIAL DEPOSITION - when a glacier stops moving it drops material - deposition. Deposited material is called TILL or BOULDER CLAY.
        • LATERAL Morraine - moves rocks + rubble to the sides
        • MEDIAL Moraine - 2 glaciers push lateral morraine together when they meet.
        • TERMINAL Morraine - deposited morraine at the snout/end of a glacier
        • Ground Morraine - a thin layer of material left under the glacier.
        • DRUMLINS - glaciers which shape morraine into small hills, 1 steep/blunt side and 1 slope, often found in groups/swarms. Glacier moved from blunt to slope.
    • Case Studies
      • Rhone Glacier /     Mer de Glace
      • Chamonix
      • Last Ice Age
    • Climate Change in the Alps
      • Average temperatures in the Alps are rising - @1800m temp increased by 3'C in the last 40yrs
        • Mer de Glace is 500m shorter than in 1994
          • Alpine summer are getting drier, driest summer in 2003 for 500yrs
            • Average temperatures in the Alps are rising - @1800m temp increased by 3'C in the last 40yrs
              • Mer de Glace is 500m shorter than in 1994
                • Alpine summer are getting drier, driest summer in 2003 for 500yrs
        • ECONOMIC IMPACTS
          • lack of snow means resorts might not be able to rely on winter tourism
          • alpine glaciers shrink less sightseers and ice climbers
          • fewer visitors mean less income for businesses relying on tourism
          • higher alpine resorts will thrive from more reliable snowfall, plus have more money to invest in fake snow machines
          • alpine agriculture may thrive from higher snowline = longer growing season
        • SOCIAL IMPACTS
          • tourist businesses close, unemployment rise
          • no tourism, young people leave communities to find work
            • older people will be left and local businesses decline
          • older people will be left and local businesses decline
        • ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
          • alpine species threatened with extinction from temp rise
          • lower level forests aso under threat
          • alpine glaciers continue to retreat - less meltwater in lake = fish die out, + Europe's river levels will drop in summer
          • increasing use of articficial snow using up huge amounts of water
          • temps rise = more avalanches
          • melting glaciers = flooding in lower valleys
          • more rock falls as the ground thaws
      • AVALANCHES
        • Immediate Efects
          • if caught in one likely to be killed or covered and suffocated
          • if survive almost certainly be seriously injured and have broken bones
          • buildings in path will be flattened or buried
          • roads blocked, slows down rescue efforts
        • Longer-term Responses
          • number of tourists can fall due to fear + loss of facilities
          • restaurants + hotels might be destroyed or forced to close
          • local businesses, shops, ski hire + tour guides lose money
          • businesses forced to close = unemployment rise

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