Reactivity of Groups

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  • Group 2
    • Hydroxide solubility increases down the group.
    • Sulphate solubility decreases down the group.
    • React with water to produce hydroxides.
    • Burn with oxygen to produce flame colours.
      • Lithium is lipstick red
      • Sodium is sunny yellow.
      • Calcium helps bones grow stronger to build a brick red house.
      • Potassium is lilac like the purple potted flowers.
      • Rubidium is red
      • Barium is bowlers green.
      • Casium is bodybuilder blue.
    • React with chlorine to form white solid chlorides.
    • Group 1 & Group 2
      • Group 2 and less thermally stable than group 1.
      • Nitrates decompose to form oxygen.
      • Carbonates decompose to form carbon dioxide.
      • Carbonates thermal stability increases down Group 2.
      • Nitrates thermal stability increases down Group 2.
    • Halogens
      • Highly reactive - decreases down the group.
      • Electronegativity decreases down the group.
        • The ability of an atom to withdraw or attracts an electron pair in a covalent bond.
      • Low solubility in water as they are covalent and diatomic.
      • Halogen are oxidising agents.
      • Melting and boiling points decrease down the group.
      • Undergo disproportionation with alkalis.
    • Halide
      • Negative ion state of Halogens.
      • Act as a reducing agent.
      • Reducing ability increases down the group - an electron is lost easier.
      • React with sulphuric acid to give a hydrogen halide.
      • Halide + Silver Nitrate
        • F- = No precipitate.
        • Cl- = White precipitate.
        • Br- = Cream precipitate.
        • I- = Yellow Precipitate.


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