Hydrogen bonding

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  • Hydrogen bonding
    • Features
      • There is a large dipole between a small hydrogen atom and a highly electronegative aom (such as O, F or N).
      • The small H atom is able to approach close to other atoms to form the hydrogen bond.
      • There needs to be a lone pair of electrons on an O, F or N atom which the hydrogen can line up with.
      • Each hydrogen atom aquires a partial positive charge because it is bonded to a highly electronegative atom.
    • The effects of hydrogen bonding
      • Compounds with hydrogen bonding have higher boiling points than compounds with similar relative molecular masses that do not.
      • Solubility: molecules can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules, allowing the two substances to mix.
      • Hydrogen bonding also affects viscosity of liquids. More viscous liquids have more hydrogen bonding.
    • Dissolving polymers
      • The reason why polymers dissolve in water comes from their structure.
        • They need to have the ability to form hydrogen bonds.
      • The -OH groups on the polymer chain can hydrogen bond with water molecules, so the polymer is soluble.
      • The polymer will become less water soluble as the proportion of -OH groups decreases.
      • Uses: washing tablets, stitches, tablets, maggot bags, seeds, bags for bed linen in hospitals.


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