HVIII & religion & the break with Rome

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  • HVIII & religion & the break with Rome
    • Reasons for the annulment
      • Personal Reasons (fell in love with Anne Boleyn
      • Religious Reasons (passage in Leviticus about marrying brothers wife)
      • Political Reasons (no male heir)
      • Diplomatic Reasons (Catherine was diplomatic liability since Eng and Fr were allies)
      • He justified it to Parliament by saying that if he doesn't have a new marriage there will be no heir, problems for future...
    • Opposition to changes
      • Open challenge from few brave individuals. Pilgramage of Grace used open rebellion as expression of opposition to reforms
      • Not much opposition from magistrates and MPs as people were being closely controlled and were intimated.
      • Opposition from the inside, some people like Bishop of Lincoln just carried on preaching Catholic doctrine (attacking from within)
      • Consequences of oppostion
        • The Carthusian Monks - some refused to swear oath of succession and they were dragged through streets, had revolting torture and killed
        • Sir Thomas More - shortly after Bishop Fisher was beheaded, he was found guilty of treason and was executed
    • Process of dissolution
      • 1534- Act of First Fruits (allowed Henry to tax the church)
        • 1535- Cromwell sent out commissioners to survey value of monastic lands. And to see moral/spiritual standards of land
          • 1536- Act of Dissolution for smaller monasteries, closed all religious lands valued under £200 p/a
            • 1537/8- Closures continued and Carthusian Monks execution.
              • 1539- Act of Dissolution for larger monasteries, all closed minus small, private chapels
                • 1540- The Court of Augmentations was established to handle property and income from dissolved monasteries
    • Effects of dissolution of monasteries
      • Economic - the dissolution reduced the wealth of church by 25% and brought Crown £1.3 million. Court of Augmentations set up to deal with flow of money. Removal of monasteries and their charity meant that the state had to deal with poverty. Sale of monastic lands meant there was a transfer of power into hands of local landowners.
      • Religious - Abbots did well if they co-orporated - became Bishops. Abbots removed from House of Lord s to make it easier to have religious changes.
      • Social - many artistic, music and literary masterpieces could well have been lost
      • Political - Cromwell hoped to use the new wealth to improve education and create new bishoprics.


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