Humans & their Environment

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  • Humans & their Environment
    • Deforestation
      • Timber
      • Slash and Burn for farmland
      • Ruins habitats, Biodiversity & Soil
      • Ecotourism - making forests tourist attractions to save them.
      • Increases carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
    • Peat Cutting
      • Burning
      • Compost
      • Destroys habitats & Biodiversity
      • Take many years to form
    • Greenhouse Effect
      • Causes global warming
      • Increased carbon dioxide: more fossi fuels burnt, deforestation, carbon sink is almost full, locked up carbon released
      • Carbon dioxide and Methane reflect infrared
      • Effects:
        • Melting of perma-frost
        • Ice caps/glaciers melt
        • Sea levels rise
        • Flooding and loss of land
        • Loss of arctic habitats
        • Changes weather conditions
        • Change to biodiversity e.g. coral reefs
        • Change in migration patterns
        • Desertification
    • Biofuels
      • Made from living organisms or a by-product of their waste
      • Can be made from Corn, Sugarcane, Rapeseed, Soya and, currently, waste vegetable oil
      • Advantages:
        • Less toxic than regular diesel
        • Releases less pollution
        • Sustainable
      • Disadvantages:
        • Cannot make enough
        • Comes from a food source
        • Expensive & pushes up food prices
        • Virgin forests being chopped down
      • Bio-ethanol
        • Made by fermentation using yeast to convert sugars to ethanol
        • Advantages:
          • Lots of sugars can be fermented
          • Carbon Neutral
          • Low Pollution - less carbon dioxide and water made
          • Distilled to produce more concentrated ethanol
        • Disadvantages:
          • Crop prices increase
          • Land not used for food
      • Biogas
        • Mixture of carbon dioxide and methane. Produced by microorganisms digesting waste material
        • Advantages:
          • Readily available
          • Domestic & Industrial scale plants
          • Carbon neutral
        • Disadvantages:
          • Slowed production in cooler climates
        • Fixed Dome Digester
          • Few moving parts
          • Varying gas pressure
          • Difficult to build
        • Floating Dome Digester
          • Consistent gas pressure
          • Difficult to build
          • Lots of moving parts
    • Overfishing
      • Taking more fish from an area than can be replaced by breeding
      • Protection:
        • Fishing Quotas:
          • Restricting fishing days, size of fish & minimum net size
          • Increase restriction for more popular fish, preventing extinction
          • Very political - difficult to agree on restrictions
        • Marine Nature reserves
    • Fusarium
      • Edible fungus
      • Provides protein called mycoprotein
      • Grows quickly in the right conditions
        • Glucose - provides energy
        • Oxygen - for aerobic respiratoin
        • Nitrogen - makes protein
      • Advantages:
        • High in protein
        • Low in fat
        • Suitable for vegetarians
      • Disadvantages:
        • People don't like the ideas of eating fungus
        • Lower in iron than meat

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