Human Machine Interaction

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  • Created by: Sess
  • Created on: 21-05-15 05:18
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  • Human Machine Interaction
    • Definition
      • A discipline concerned with the design, eval & implementation of interactive computing systems for human use & the study of major phenomena surrounding them
      • Association for Computing Machinery
    • High Level Theories
      • Keystroke Theories
        • Foley & Wallace (1974)
        • 1) Conceptual
          • The user's mental model of the interactive system (e.g. I need to delete a file)
        • 2) Semantic Level
          • The meaning conveyed by user's command input & computer's output display
          • e.g. Open the recycle bin, place file inside it
        • 3) Syntactic Level
          • How units are assembled into a complete sentence to form instruction for a computer's certain task
          • e.g. Double click recycle icon to open the folder, right click to empty it
        • 4) Lexical Level
          • Deals with device descrepancies & precise mechanisms
          • e.g. Mouse moved to location X203, Right button clicked at 13:02
      • GOMS Model
        • Card et al (1983)
        • Analyses estimating task times + identifying task steps
        • Goals
          • e.g. to edit a document
        • Operators
          • The user, who presses buttons and recalls the file name
        • Methods
          • The procedures to carry out the goals
        • Selection Rules
          • Choosing from various methods to achieve goals
    • Dialogues
      • 8 Golden Rules
        • Shneiderman (1987)
        • 1) Strive for consistency
          • Consistent sequences of actions
          • Consistent prompts, colour, layout
        • 2) Cater to universal ability
          • Allow explanations for novices
          • And shortcuts for experts
        • 3) Offer informative feedback
          • There should be feedback for every action so that the user knows its working
          • Minor actions beg minor feedback
          • Error warnings should also be generated if needed
        • 4) Design dialogs to yield closure
          • Actions should be organised with a beginning middle & end
          • E.g e-commerce, moving from basket page to check out page
          • Then a signal to know that the task is complete
        • 5) Prevent Errors
          • Grey out inappropriate menu parts or prevent alphabet in numeric entry fields
          • If the user makes an error, the system remains unchanged, guiding the user to fix only that bit
        • 6) Permit easy reversal of actions
          • Reduces anxiety
          • Encourages exploration of the system
        • 7) Support internal locus of control
          • The user should feel in charge, that the system responds to their commands
        • 8) Reduce load on STM
          • Information shouldnt be asked for twice
          • Gentle reminders about things should be present
      • Error Dialogues
        • They need to be specific
        • Ambiguity/ Inconsistency must be avoided
        • Constructive guidance: the system needs to guide the user
        • They must be understood by the user
      • Can be in the form of a direct command line eg dir/p
      • Can be user initiated eg emailing for support
      • Can be supported by the user eg what happens if I..
      • Can be forms to fill out
    • Displays
      • Menus
        • Choices must be constrained
        • Should be easier to use than command line interfaces
        • Users should learn to constrain their natural language
      • Toolbars
        • Must be neat and tidy
        • Icons must be well designed and understandable
        • Capitals must be used sparingly
        • Fonts must be legible
        • Things must be in high contrast
    • Skill Acquisition
      • Shneiderman (1998)

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