Human Geography Case Studies

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  • Human Geography Case Studies
    • With reference to one or more located examples, explain how the exploitation of energy resources may create problems for both people and the environment.
      • Fracking
        • The process of drilling down before a high-pressure water mixture is directed at the rock to release the gas inside. Water, sand and chemicals are injected into the rock at high pressure which allows the gas to flow out to the head of the well. The process is carried out vertically or, more commonly, by drilling horizontally to the rock layer. The process can create new pathways to release gas or can be used to extend existing channels.
          • concerns that potentially carcinogenic chemicals can sometimes escape and find their way into drinking water sources. Some American householders also claim that shale gas leaking into their drinking supply causes tap water to ignite.
            • The industry itself also vigorously denies that shale gas is unsafe and blames pollution incidents as examples of bad practice, rather than an inherently risky technique
              • Shale gas may also present a problem for global warming, because it is an abundant fossil fuel that could be a cheaper substitute than many renewable energy sources. However, carbon (and noxious gas) emissions from natural gas are much lower than from oil and coal.
                • There are also worries that the fracking process can cause small earth tremors. Two small earthquakes of 1.5 and 2.2 magnitude hit the Blackpool area this year and fracking operations have now been suspended pending an investigation.
        • New York
      • Three Gorges Plan
        • The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric dam located in Yiling District, Yichang, Hubei province, China.
          • Produces electricity,increases shipping capacity, reduces potential for floods downstream by providing flood storage space,historical, social and economic success.
            • This region has long been known for its rich biodiversity. It is home to 6,388 species of plants, which belong to 238 families and 1508 genera. Of these plant species, 57 percent are endangered.These rare species are also used as ingredients in traditional Chinese medicines
              • Already, the percentage of forested area in the region surrounding the Three Gorges Dam has dropped from twenty percent in 1950 to less than ten percent as of 2002,[78] negatively affecting all plant species in this locality.
                • he region also provides habitats to hundreds of freshwater and terrestrial animal species.[67] Freshwater fish are especially affected by dams due to changes in the water temperature and flow regime. Many other fish are hurt in the turbine blades of the hydroelectric plants as well.
    • With reference to one or more located examples, explain how the growth of tourism creates problems for both people and the environment.
      • Benidorm
        • coastal town in spain by the mediteranean, was once a small village which thrived on its fishing business now covered in hotels and tourist attractions,
          • In 195 the fishing industry went into decline, today the town is europe and spains biggest holiday resort and is responsible for a large chunk of spains tourist industry
            • No more small town local traditions, lots to compete with, full of partiers and tourists not a  place for old retired people,increased pollution, increased traffic, loss of scenery, interaction with environment has negative impact on wildlife, creates pressure on natural resources, golf courses use up tonnes of water that is needed, deforestation is also a major concern.
      • Yorkshire Dales
        • An upland area of northern england:collection of valleys and hills, wenslydale,
          • Loss of local traditions, quiteness, becomes more busy, bigger stores may move into the area and destroy smaller local stores business'.
            • Wenslydale: North Yorkshire: Covers an area of round 900km,Countryside dominates, intensive farming, fast road and rail links, steep slopes, acid soils, hill sheep farming
    • Characteristics of a rural area
      • Wenslydale and Vasternorrland
        • Wenslydale: North Yorkshire: Covers an area of round 900km,Countryside dominates, intensive farming, fast road and rail links, steep slopes, acid soils, hill sheep farming
        • Vasternorrland:Sweden: high climate, high latitude, 62*w 64*n: kjen mountains which are located in north sweden from the warming influence of north atlantic ocean, long cold winters, sea ice along bothnian coast in winter.
          • Factors influencing rural development: land above 450m, mixed farming, sheep farming and dairy cattle.
            • Homogeneus in rural areas, 95 to 100% is white or british born, popular for retired people
              • Wenslydale and Vasternorrland
                • Vasternorrland:Sweden: high climate, high latitude, 62*w 64*n: kjen mountains which are located in north sweden from the warming influence of north atlantic ocean, long cold winters, sea ice along bothnian coast in winter.
                  • Factors influencing rural development: land above 450m, mixed farming, sheep farming and dairy cattle.
                    • Homogeneus in rural areas, 95 to 100% is white or british born, popular for retired people
        • Social & Economic issues associated with rural change
          • SnOasis
            • Planned indoor winter resource centre to open in 2014
              • Fear of increase in crime in the area, Disruption from visitors - threatening local traditions, these projects tend to go bust, Ipswich nearby already has something similar, low skilled and low paid jobs, may cause big companies to move to area destroying smaller local business', seasonality visits?
          • Environmental Issues associated with rural change
            • Norfolk Broads
              • Bringing in tourists to the area to rival the carmarge - locals object to having a busier area, however there arn't enough tourists at the moment and the area is going into decline
                • Green boats scheme - people will object to having to pay to change their boats, 24,000 ha and 1700 homes will be at risk of flooding if the flood defences fail, Pollution by agricultural fertilisers has increased growth of algae in the broads
            • Rural areas managed to ensure sustainability
              • SnOasis
                • It will be 60% sustainable through renewable energy and will end up being 100% sustainable,
                  • ISSUES: Can roads cope?, will it impact house value, beautiful landscape destroyed, rare wildlife conserved, 32,000 tonnes of co2 into the area
                    • 130,000 trees to be planted, affordable housing scheme to be put in place, jobs for everyone.
      • Problems with Rural areas of an LEDC
        • Malawi, landlocked in south east africa, east of Zambia
        • Dominated by primary industry, some secondary industry, minimal tertiary industry,
          • Primary- Farming & Fishing, forestry, mining e.t.c. Secondary- building  steel making Tertiary-  Health Education Transport.
          • Low Income
            • Low saving
              • Low Investment
                • Low Economic Growth
                  • Low Income
                    • Low saving
                      • Low Investment
                        • Low Economic Growth
                      • Low Productivity
                        • Low levels of human capitol
                          • Low levels of education and healthcare
                • Low Productivity
                  • Low levels of human capitol
                    • Low levels of education and healthcare

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