Human circulatory system

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  • Human circulatory system
    • Double circulatory system - first goes through the lungs, then the heart
    • Liver - Hepatic Kidney - Renal
    • Aorta -> Arteries -> Arterioles -> Capillaries -> Venules -> Veins ->    Vena Cava
    • Arteries
      • Carry oxygenated blood around the body
      • Small lumen
        • Maintain high pressure
      • Thick muscle
        • To control and distribute blood flow
      • Thick elastic
        • Expand during systole and relax during distil to even the flow
    • Capillaries
      • Allow gass exchange
      • One cell thick squamerous endothelium
        • Short diffusion distance
      • Thin, pourus walls
        • Allows exchange of materials
      • Very small lumen
    • Veins
      • Carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart
      • Thin walls, mostly collagen
      • Large lumen
        • Reduces friction
      • Many valves
        • Prevents back-flow
    • Body relies on constant contractions of muscles around veins to get the blood back to the heart
    • Tissue fluid
      • Arteriole end - high pressure gradient, substances are forced out
      • RBC and plasma proteinsremain in blood as they are too large
      • Venule end - water moves in by osmosis, larger WP due to tissue fluid and plasma in the blood, osmosis is slower, so tissue fluid forms
      • Excess fluid is drained into lymphatic system
    • Lymphatic system
      • Runs alongside the veins, towards the heart
      • Drain back into the blood system near the Vena Cava
      • No pump, contains valves and helped along by contraction of muscles.
      • Drain excess fluid, absorbs fat from small intestine and is part of the immune system


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