Biology- The Human nervous system

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  • Created by: elliph
  • Created on: 12-04-16 16:39
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  • Human Nervous System
    • System
      • Stimulus
      • Receptor
      • Coordinator
      • Effector
      • Response
    • Nerve cells
      • Sensory neurone
        • have long dendrons
        • myelinated
        • Cell body
        • Axon
        • From receptors to all over body
      • Relay neurone
        • smaller, many interconnections
        • 99.9% or neurones are relay
      • Motor neurone
        • Long axons
        • From CNS to effectors
    • Impulses
      • Membrane Polarised
        • Difference in charge
        • resting potential -70mV
        • Na+, K+ pumps use active transport to move 3 Na= out and 2 K+ in.
        • K+ pump use facilitated diffusion to pump K+ out.
      • Polerisation
        • Depolarisation
        • Repolarisation
        • Hyperpolarisation
        • Untitled
      • Action potential
        • Refractory period so no back fires can occur
        • All-or-nothing nature
        • Myelination makes impulses faster
        • Axon Diameter means less resistance
        • Temperature increases the speed of the impulse
    • Synaptic transmission
      • Synapse= junction between neurones and next cell
      • Synaptic cleft
      • Synaptic knob- presynaptic membrane only
      • Neurotransmitters
        • exitatory
          • depolarise
        • inhibitory
          • hyperpolarise
      • action potential
      • Receptors- postsynaptic membrane only
      • Acetylcholine
      • Calcium ions
    • Synapses
      • Drugs
        • some mimic the shape of receptors
        • some block receptors
        • some inhibit the enzyme that breaks down neurotransmitters
      • Summation
        • Spatial summation
          • Many neurones connect to one
          • small amount each, together reaches threshold
          • if some inhibitory, makes less likely to reach threshold
        • Temporal summation
          • 2 or more impulses arrive in quick succession
          • more neurotransmitters released

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