Human nature and natural rights 10 marker

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  • Human nature
    • Human nature
      • Human nature is rational
        • People are capable of pursuing their own interests
        • The power of reason
      • Faith in both the individual and freedom
      • Liberals oppose paternalism
      • Classical liberals:
        • Locke - egoistical and self interested
        • Humans should be self reliant
        • Everyone should tolerate eachother
      • Human beings are self seeking and self reliant creatures
      • Bentham = humans are the best judge of morality
    • Individualism
      • The rights and interests of every individual is primary
        • Individual is the primary importance
      • Classical liberals:
        • egoistical individualism
        • Macphearson = 'possessive individualism'
        • Kant = individuals are 'ends in themselves' not there to help others achieve their ends
      • Modern Liberalism:
        • Liberty allows the individual to develop and flourish
        • The state helps individuals
        • T.H.Green - individuals have a social obligation to help eachother
        • Society can progress collectively and give individuals the opportunity to progress collectively
    • Natural rights
      • John Locke = 'life, liberty and property'
        • The only role of the gov is to protect these rights
      • God given rights that are fundamental to human beings
      • Bentham did not believe natural rights are 'inalienable'
        • They have to be written in a social contract
      • Jefferson = American declaration of independence, 'life, liberty and the pursuit of hppiness'
    • Tolerance
      • Locke = toleration should be extended to all matters.
      • People are born equal so we should all be tolerant
      • ML's believe in social justice
      • Locke = 'every man may enjoy the same rights that are granted to others'
      • Voltaire = 'I detest what you say but i will defend to death your right to say it'
      • CL's see toleration as a guarantee of personal autonomy and therefore moral self development.
        • Autonomy = self government

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