Human Gaseous Exhange System

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  • Human Gaseous Exchange System
    • Trachea
      • Cartilage
        • support
        • strong
        • flexible
        • incomplete rings
          • food can move down oesophagus behind
      • Smooth muscle
        • contract or relax to alter diameter
      • Elastic fibres
        • recoil during exhalation
      • Goblet cells
        • produce mucus
          • mucus traps dust and bacteria
      • Ciliated epithelium
        • sweep mucus away from lungs
    • Bronchi
      • Trachea divides to form 2 bronchi
      • structurally similar to trachea
      • smaller than trachea
    • Bronchioles
      • Bronchi divide to form many small broncioles
      • No cartilage rings
      • smooth muscle
        • contracts and relaxes to change amount of air reaching lungs
    • Alveoli
      • thin walls
        • single layer of squamous epithelium
        • short diffusion distance
      • large surface area
        • efficient diffusion
      • good blood supply
        • surrounded by many capillaries
        • Maintain steep concentration gradient of O2 and CO2
      • lined with lung surfactant
        • dissolves gases
        • reduces cohesion of water molecules
          • prevent collapse of alveoli during inhalation
            • dissolves gases
    • Nasal cavity
      • good blood supply
        • warms incoming air
      • hairs
        • secrete mucus
          • trap dust and bacteria
      • moist
        • increase humidity of incoming air
          • reduce evaporation

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