Human Defence Systems & Vaccination

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  • Human Defence Systems (
    • Explain how: white blood cells use phagocytosis to defend against pathogens.
    • Explain how: white blood cells produce antibodies to defend against pathogens
    • Describe how: the non-specific defence systems of the human body (including skin, nose, trachea and bronchi and stomach) protect against pathogens.
    • Explain how white blood cells produce antitoxins to defend against pathogens.
  • Vaccination (
    • Explainhow: the spread of pathogens can be reduced by immunising a large proportion of the population.
    • Explain how: having a vaccination stimulates the white blood cells to produce antibodies against a particular pathogen and that if the same pathogen then enters the body, the white blood cells are able to respond quickly to produce the correct antibodies, preventing infection.
    • A vaccine contains small quantities of dead or inactive forms of a pathogen.


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