Infection and Response

  • Created by: AOconnor
  • Created on: 12-05-18 11:55
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  • Infection and Response
    • Preventing entry
      • Enzymes in tears destroy microorganism
      • Nose traps particles containing pathogens
      • sebaceous gland in skin produces sebum, killing bacteria and fungi
      • Glands in stomach produce HCL, killing bacteria
      • Cilia sweeps mucus along (which traps bacteria)
    • Immune system
      • Phagocytosis
        • Pathogen surrounded, engulfed and destoryed
        • Antibody
          • protein molecules
            • Attach to antigen, causing microorganism to clump so they can be digested
        • Antitoxin
          • chemicals that neutralise poisonous effects of toxins
    • Vaccination
      • Inject small amount of dead/inactive pathogen cells
        • Stimulates WBC to produce antibodies and develop immunity
        • If same pathogen re-enters, WBC respond quicker to produce antibody
    • Developing Drugs
      • Tested for toxicity, efficacy and dosage
      • Preclinical testing = using cells, tissues and animals
      • Clinical trials (healthy volunteers and patients)
        • Low doses given
          • Find optimum dose if safe
      • Double blind trials
        • Some given placebo
    • Monoclonal antibodies
      • Produced from single clone of cells
        • Specific to one binding site on one antigen
          • Target specific chemicals and cells
        • Produced via stimulating mouse lymphocytes to make antibody
          • Lymphocytes combined with tumour cell to produce hybridoma cell
            • hybridoma cell can divide and make antibody
              • Clone hybridoma cell to produce many antibodies
      • Uses
        • Diagnosis in pregnancy test
        • Measure hormone levels and other chemicals or to detect pathogens
        • Reasearch (locate and identify molecules in cells by binding with dye)
        • Treat disease
          • monoclonal antibody can bind to radioactive substance to stop it from dividing and cells growing
            • Used for cancer


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