How was Germany defeated?

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  • Created by: LBC0502
  • Created on: 27-05-14 20:10
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  • How was Germany defeated?
    • Advances made on the Eastern Front  (1944-45)
      • Stalingrad and Kursk
      • Summer 1943, Germans outnumbered 3-1 in tanks
      • USSR victory near end of seige of Leningrad in January 1944 (Northern part of German invasion, city besieged for 2.5 years)
      • Between 7-20 million Soviet civilians were killed (Germans saw Soviets as sub-humans)
      • End of 1944, there were no German troops occupying USSR, Soviet advance began again in mid-January 1945
      • April 1945, Poland, Hungary and Austria were liberated. On 2nd May, Soviets took Berlin. 1.5 million soldiers were killed
      • USSR eliminated 600 German divisions (a division was about 12,00 men)
      • Germany surrendered and signed a document at Rheins, France on 7th May 1945 at 02:41 hours
      • Operations eased at 23:01 hours on 8th May
    • Advances made by the Allies in the West   (1944-45)
      • December 1944, Hitler wanted to split the Allied forces from Antwerp port, Belgium
      • Battle of the Bulge
      • Allies had supply problems and took 23 litres of fuel to deliver 4.5 litres of fuel
      • Hitler hoped Britain and USA would separate from the USSR
      • Hitler hoped to create new weapons for defeat Stalin
      • The offensive in Ardennes was planned in secret without the Allies knowing
      • 16th December 1944, there was poor weather for the Allies and Germans were successful and created a 'bulge' in the US lines
      • January 1945, US withdrew from defence lines. There were 80,000 US casualties and 100,000 German casualties
      • March 1945, Allies pushed across River Rhine, and the Germans surrendered on 8th May. Hiter committed suicide on 30th April
      • Historians say that Allies were close to Germany, therefore German soldiers were less willing to fight
    • Other reasons contributing to the defeat of Germany
      • Allies supplies were impossible for Germany to compete with (because of USA)
      • Allies were able to replace ships from war at sea
      • Allies had technical developments e.g sonar, depth charges and centimetric radar to combat U-boats (1942-44)
      • The invasion of the Soviet Union meant that Hitler had to fight a war on two fronts (along with several divisions in North Africa and Italy)
      • RAF and USAAF destroyed industrial complexes, roads, bridges, railway yards and munition factories. German industry declined in early 1945
      • German treatment to civilians in the countries they occupied led to growth of resistance (partisan groups)
      • Hitler made the mistake of halting German tanks outside Dunkirk and refused to allow troops to retreat from Stalingrad
      • Hitler faced three powerful leaders, Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin, who inspired their people throughout the war years
      • People in Britain and USA were united in the belief that the were fighting to get rid Europe of tyranny. They felt sacrifices were worth enduring in order to create a better future for the world

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