How Reliably Are Eye Witness Testimonies?

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  • Created by: BecsaBabe
  • Created on: 20-11-14 14:15
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  • How reliable are Eye Witness Testimonies?
    • Reconstructive Memory
      • Bartlett (1934)
        • Memory is an imaginative resconstruction of what happened and can be affected by confabulation which is filling in gaps with scemas
      • Allport and Postman (1947)
        • When recalling picture they said it was the black man holding the razor.
    • Leading Questions
      • Loftus and Palmer (1974)
        • found leading questions affected acuuracy of recall
          • More dramatic adjectives when asking about a car crash higher predictions of cars speed
      • Loftus and Zanni (1975)
        • Did you see the broken head light?
          • more particiapnts recalled borken glass (which wasnt there)
        • Did you see a broken headlight?
    • Anxiety/Stress
      • Yuille and Cutshall (1986)
        • stressfull incident --> better recall
          • witness of a gun shooting outside a shop in Canada
      • Christianson and Hubinette (1993)
        • 110 witness of 22 bank robberies
          • Victims had better recall of the event up to 15 months after it happened
      • Yerkes-Dodson Law (1908)
        • Recall is better with moderate arousal
          • EWT is stressfull therefore worse recall
      • Freud
        • We repress stressful events to protect ourselves from negative emotions
      • Koehler et al (2002)
        • 50 words --? measured GSR
          • higher GSR / more anxiety / worse recall
    • Age
      • Yamey (1984)
        • 80% Elderly
          • failed to metion a knife
            • 20% young adults
        • 20% young adults
      • Gorden et al (2001)
        • Children are susceptable to suggestions so their EWT are less accurate
    • Weapon Focus
      • Concentration on a weapon reduces accuracy on everything else recalled
      • Loftus et al (1987)
        • customer who held a gun
          • less likely to identify person
        • Customer who held a chequebook
          • able to identify the person
      • Yuille and Cutshall (1986)
        • wintesses of a gun shooting outside a shop in Canada
          • Good recall of the event and still had good recall 15 years later
    • Cross-Race Identification
      • people have difficulty identifying  members of other races than there own
        • everyone from a different race look similar under pressure
      • Anthony et al
        • found we recognise people from our 'in' group more than those in an 'out' group


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