How far was Royal Power Increased?

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  • How far was Royal Power Increased?HVIII - EVI (1535-1553)
    • Control of Religion
      • HENRY
        • WEALTH
          • 1536: Act of Dissolution of the Smaller Monasteries
          • 1538: Dissolution of the greater monasteries
        • PARLIAMENT
          • meant that they were supported by the 'political nation' tf. supposedly more difficult to reverse
        • CONTROL
          • 1534: Act of Supremacy + Treason Act (denial)
          • the control of the wealth of Church enabled the crown increased Patronage, income and land all of which would increase support. Theoretically...
      • ED
        • TREASON ACTS
          • 1547: saying/writing that King is not SHOC or attempting to deprive king/succesors = treason
          • 1552: offense to question the supremacy or articles of faith
        • WEALTH
          • 1552: Northumberland values church at £1million+ steps to acquire wealth hindered by Ed's death...
        • CONTROL
          • S 1548: proclomation limiting who can preach and what can be preached
          • N 1549: all ecclesiastical courts are put in Eds name
    • Use of Parliament
      • ED
        • Northumberland increasingly used Parliament because Somerset's use of own council had been extremely unpopular
      • HENRY
        • Parliament passed all of Henry's legislation however was now expected to be consulted - 'King in Parliament'
        • made law that Lord Chancellor (appointed by Henry) oversaw the House of Lords (even if not a lord himself)
        • the extent to which Henry could use Parliament to raise taxes was limited - subsidy and loans
        • Parliament legitmised Break w Rome and Council
    • Development of Central Government/Political Administration
      • ED
        • N increased the Privy council to 33 members - can invite friends (i.e.. Thomas Grey)
        • S - goes backwards - uses own council
          • 'Lord Protector'
        • 1551 set up Privy coffer
      • HENRY
        • PRIVY COUNCIL
          • 1539 = 19ish members, beaurocratic, split into different councils
            • no space for one ruling minister - why under Cromwell had limited its success
          • advised the ruler, administered the realm and appointed magistrates and often acted as JPs
          • 'managed' parliament
          • 1541 - 'Court of Chancery' created meant own secretary, Henry had no need for another chief minister
        • FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION
          • before 1538 sums went straight to exchequer 'kings purse' = slow and inefficient
          • 1536 - Court of Augmentations = monastic property and revenue (1554 = part of Exchequer)    1540 - Court of Wards - Y form warships (-> crown prevents corruption)  1541 - Courts of Fruits and 10ths      1542 - Court of General surveyors
        • PRIVY CHAMBER
          • King controls patronage
          • members could use relationship with King to promote self - Reformists + great seal
            • personal relationship = manipulation?!
    • Centralisation of Government
      • HENRY
        • increase in Service Nobles (i.e. Somerset, and Northumberland...)
        • Act of Union - Wales incorporated into English legal system - lack of revolt = successful. i.e. JPs County courts etc.
        • 1541 Liberties and Franchises ended - reduced magnate law
        • Regional Councils report to Privy Council
          • increasingly run be service nobles i.e. Council of the North run by Bishop Tunstall from 1537
        • Common law courts = in London however regional travelling County assizes where judges went on circuit
          • supported by JPs 1/4 sessions
            • unpaid but good reputation as self interest. Made into law through parliament replaced use of Sheriffs
          • county assizes became irrelevant due to laziness and corruption
      • ED
        • 1550 new treason act enabled JPs to restore law and order in localities
        • 1550 - Lord Lieutenants were made permanent
    • Finances
      • ED
        • Increased
          • N = last debasement in 1551, almost halves debt from £300,000 to £180,000
          • N secure an emergency Hh fund
          • N calls in all crown debts
          • N sends Thomas Gresham to the Neds 12+ who achieves the manipulation of sterling in order to pay off debts.
          • William Paulet - Lord Treasurer (had been keeper of the great seal)
          • 1548 - S introduced an incredible unpopular 5% tax on property and sheep
        • Decreased
          • S continued debasement and the maintenance of Garrisons in boulogne and on the scottish borders (cost£351,000)
          • S is forced to sell lands to maintain support and solvency of the crown. Sells Boulogne for £133,333, also Church and chantry lands
      • HENRY
        • Decreased
          • Battle of Solway Moss 1542 - aided Scottish and French relations vs England (MQS -> French dauphin)
          • War - Henry's war in France cost £2m + raised from loans, subsidies and the unwise debasement of the economy
          • Henry's financial policies caused massive inflation - in Edward's reign this was exacerbated by poor harvests (1549)
          • became known as 'copper nose' cos so little gold/silver
        • Increased
          • church lands
    • King's age
      • HENRY
        • ill mobile and irritable
        • Reformists gained control of the dry stamp - could act under the King's name
        • however personally oversaw (protestant) Anne Askew's burning in 1547 and ordered Norfolk and Surrey's executions
          • intervened in what he cared about...
        • mumpsimus sumpsimus - last speech t parliament doesn't like faction
      • ED
        • Edward was a minor making his policy determined by his regional council - the members of which were determined by the council's leader
        • 1552: Ed's majority changed to 16
        • his personal dislike of Somerset and his belief that his religious policies didn't go far enough helped orchestrate  S' fall
        • he began to sit in on council meetings - specific say in religious (and domestic) policy

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