How the factor influences the relative level of social inequality between places

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  • How the factor influences the relative level of social inequality between places
    • Wealth
      • the ability to purchase goods and services is fundamental to social well-being
      • everywhere, low incomes are linked to factors such as ill-health, lower educational attainment and poor access to attainment
      • lack of formal qualifications + low skill sets are major obstacles to raising incomes + therefore reducing social inequality
      • the cost of living is an important consideration when discussing the role of wealth
      • if a persons income rises, but increases in the cost of food, housing, clothing + fuel outstrip the additional income,, then that person is relatively less well-off
      • a key factor here is the disposable income: the amount left over after the essentials of life have been bought
    • Housing
      • the smaller the income of a household, the less choice of housing they have
      • poor quality housing +overcrowded conditions often create ill-health
      • in LIDCs + some EDCs millions of people have no choice but to live in slum housing
      • homelessness is a growing problem among urban populations in many ACs
      • in ACs the affordability of housing contributes to social inequality
      • in the UK since the 1980s low-cost social housing provided by local authorities has decreased dramatically
      • rise in 2nd home ownership + migration of wealthy people into villages + small towns of countryside have raised property prices beyond reach of many young people
    • Health
      • clear link between ill-health and deprivation
      • substandard housing, poor diet, unhealthy lifestyles, stress of poverty, distribution of healthcare services is uneven
      • e.g. in a local scale, elderly have limited mobility which restricts access to GPs +primary healthcare
      • medical care can be an issue for households without access to a car or overall transport
    • Education
      • differing access to educational opportunities is recognised as a significant element in creating + maintaining inequalities
      • illiteracy excludes people from accessing education and skills training + therefore reduces employment opportunities
      • accessing even basic education can be a major issue in rural regions in LIDCs
    • Access to Services
      • influenced by 3 factors: number of services, ease of getting to service and social and economic factors
      • global scale - stark inequalities between societies in terms of access to services
      • people living in capital cities where wealth + investment are high tend to have good access to services
      • people in peripheral regions, those usually furthest from the core suffer from limited access
      • often a clear urban-rural divide in access to services
      • digital divide exists in terms of possessing means to be online + quality of connection
      • in UK, significant contrasts between areas close to urban centres + rural areas in terms of broadband speeds
      • social inequality can persist in places where authorities restrict access to internet services, e.g. China + North Korea


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