How succesful was Edward's second reign

  • Created by: Emma1231
  • Created on: 20-09-18 11:19
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  • How successful was Edward's second reign?
    • Government and Law & Order
      • Edward was successful in putting down rebellions against him.
        • In Kent there was a rebellion led by Fauconberg. Edward put down the rebellion and had Fauconberg executed.
        • There was a serious rebellion in Wales, which ended in the death of Roger Vaughan, a trusted Yorkist. However, by October 1471, the last Lancastrian castles of Pembroke and Tenby surrendered to Edward. Edward also attainted those who had fought against him.
      • Edward used patronage so that all nobles owed their positions to him.
      • Edward intended to outlaw retainers, because they threatened a king's power, but his law didn't work because it allowed retainers for 'lawful service' - which his nobles took to mean whatever they wanted.
        • One nobleman is recorded as having 64 new retainers between 1469 and 1482.
      • Edward used the Church to claim that to challenge him was to challenge God.
      • Unlike Henry, Edward was willing to let men of gentry backgrounds serve him on the Council if they were skilled; likewise, noblemen who were untalented did not get places.
        • For example, the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk were never Councillors, whereas gentry like John Fogge and William Parr were prominent members of government.
      • Edward travelled around the country hearing disputes.
        • This worked well until his death.
      • Edward appointed his own servants as justices of the peace and sheriffs - so he could trust them not to rebel.
      • Edward worked well with and respected Parliament, calling it infrequently but for longer periods.
    • Securing the crown
      • Henry VI and Edward of Westminster were both dead, so there was no one to challenge him anymore. This also stopped Margaret of Anjou from fighting in her son's name.
        • Eg. Lord Fauconberg had risen up in Henry's name. After he was killed, there was only one more rebellion - the Earl of Oxford in September 1473, who was deserted by most of his me.
      • Most Lancastrian supporters had either been pardoned or were safely in exile abroad
        • Eg Jasper Tudor was in exile in Brittany, and Fauconberg had been pardoned
      • Edward didn't have to face any overmighty nobles any more.
        • Warwick was dead and his inheritance split between his daughters' husbands
      • Because Parliament represented the people, and supported Edward, he could claim that the people supported him.
    • Image of Kingship
      • Edward failed to go to war with France as promised, but made peace instead - this looked weak.
      • Edward displayed the majesty of the crown and his court, to make himself look like a king and so to be respected.
    • Finance and trade
      • Edward got a lot of money from Crown lands.
        • Edward's lands brought in £30,000 a year
        • Edward owned more land than Henry VI had, because he had attainted several people.
        • Edward made commissioners inspect collections of revenues from Duchy of Lancaster lands - and so Lancashire brought in £347 in 1476 and £800 in 1478
      • Customs revenue provided a lot of money.
        • He made treaties with the Hanseatic League, France and Burgundy, which meant Edward's income rose to £35,000 a year from customs revenue.
        • Edward personally invested in the wool, cloth and tin trades. He exported wool to a great amount of profit.
        • Edward lent ships to merchants to get more trade.
      • Edward used his prerogative rights to earn more.
        • He was feudal overlord and as such got income from wards. Or he could sell wardships to the highest bidder.
          • Eg Henry, Duke of Buckingham was a wealthy ward who was engaged to Katherine Woodville - so Edward got the money as Katherine's brother-in-law
        • Edward claimed revenue from empty bishoprics and from fines
      • Edward collected fifteenth and tenth taxes and one-off benevolences
        • Eg. In his second reign Edward got £177,000 from benevolences
          • It shows that people were content with Edward's kingship that they did not rebel because of Edward's numerous benevolences
        • But when Edward collected massive taxes to pay for a war with France between 1472 and 1475, he ended up not fighting and so taking money under false pretences.
          • So agreed not to collect last tax.
      • Edward also used a more efficient system to collect money. Rather than going through the Exchequer, it went straight to his chamber - so was less bureaucratic.
      • A good source of income was also Acts of Resumption
      • Spent a lot on court, but needed to look like a king so this was not a waste of money.
        • Image of Kingship
          • Edward failed to go to war with France as promised, but made peace instead - this looked weak.
          • Edward displayed the majesty of the crown and his court, to make himself look like a king and so to be respected.
    • Regions
      • The North was successfully controlled by Richard, Duke of Gloucester
        • Gloucester was married to Warwick's daughter Anne, so the Neville supporters in the North were loyal to him.
        • The earls of Northumberland swore homage to Gloucester
      • The Stanley brothers controlled Cheshire and Lancashire, but weren't particular Yorkists. However as they were separated from any Lancastrians they were safe.
        • The Stanleys didn't rebel in Edward's second reign.
        • Gloucester acted as a buffer between the Stanleys and the Percies.
      • Initially Clarence controlled the Midlands
        • Clarence had murdered a servant, Ankarette Twynhoo, for being Elizabeth Woodville's spy. He also may have tried to use necromancy against Edward, and given his history of rebellion, was just to dangerous.
      • Hastings later controlled the Midlands well.
        • Hastings owned Derbyshire, Staffordshire, Leicestershire and Warwickshire, and built up a power base for Prince Richard, Duke of York.
      • Wales was nominally under Prince Edward of Wales, but actually under Anthony Rivers.
        • However, this took land away from Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, weakening his loyal support for Edward.
        • Wales was divided into Crown and Marcher lands. There was no uniformity between the two, and Edward failed to make any.
      • The south-west became held by Thomas and Richard Grey, Edward's stepsons
    • Nobility
      • Social Mobility
        • Families had long been able to better themselves since the Black Death. However, Edward's frequent patronage of 'new men' as well as the numerous deaths of male heirs, meant that it was easier for families to buy land or inherit it through marriage to heiresses.
          • For example the Paston family were able to marry heiresses and rise from businessmen to gentry.
          • Sir Matthew Philip began as a goldsmith's apprentice but ended up as a knight, who owned considerable land in Kent.
        • Those at the bottom of society, such as vagabonds and prostitutes, had no hope of creating a better life for themselves.
      • Edward didn't have to face any overmighty nobles any more.
        • Warwick was dead and his inheritance split between his daughters' husbands
      • Edward had to face the treason of his brother Clarence
        • Clarence was executed and his son became Gloucester's ward - and the money went to Edward
        • Clarence had murdered a servant, Ankarette Twynhoo, for being Elizabeth Woodville's spy. He also may have tried to use necromancy against Edward, and given his history of rebellion, was just to dangerous.
        • Securing the crown
          • Henry VI and Edward of Westminster were both dead, so there was no one to challenge him anymore. This also stopped Margaret of Anjou from fighting in her son's name.
            • Eg. Lord Fauconberg had risen up in Henry's name. After he was killed, there was only one more rebellion - the Earl of Oxford in September 1473, who was deserted by most of his me.
          • Most Lancastrian supporters had either been pardoned or were safely in exile abroad
            • Eg Jasper Tudor was in exile in Brittany, and Fauconberg had been pardoned
          • Because Parliament represented the people, and supported Edward, he could claim that the people supported him.
      • Most of the important positions were filled by Edward's family, because he trusted them.
        • There is no evidence of any nobles rebelling against Edward.
        • This however upset many local landowners.
      • Once again, Edward made the mistake of overly favouring his Woodville relations., at the cto the cost of other nobles
        • Thomas Grey never paid Hastings for the marriage to his stepdaughter Cecily Bonville.
    • Foreign Policy
      • Made peace with Scotland, extending the truce until 1419, and marrying Cecily to James' son.
        • Wanted to lead war in Scotland, but then didn't. Gloucester attacked, but only won Berwick, and it cost more than it gained.
          • Finance and trade
            • Edward got a lot of money from Crown lands.
              • Edward's lands brought in £30,000 a year
              • Edward owned more land than Henry VI had, because he had attainted several people.
              • Edward made commissioners inspect collections of revenues from Duchy of Lancaster lands - and so Lancashire brought in £347 in 1476 and £800 in 1478
            • Customs revenue provided a lot of money.
              • He made treaties with the Hanseatic League, France and Burgundy, which meant Edward's income rose to £35,000 a year from customs revenue.
              • Edward personally invested in the wool, cloth and tin trades. He exported wool to a great amount of profit.
              • Edward lent ships to merchants to get more trade.
            • Edward used his prerogative rights to earn more.
              • He was feudal overlord and as such got income from wards. Or he could sell wardships to the highest bidder.
                • Eg Henry, Duke of Buckingham was a wealthy ward who was engaged to Katherine Woodville - so Edward got the money as Katherine's brother-in-law
              • Edward claimed revenue from empty bishoprics and from fines
            • Edward collected fifteenth and tenth taxes and one-off benevolences
              • Eg. In his second reign Edward got £177,000 from benevolences
                • It shows that people were content with Edward's kingship that they did not rebel because of Edward's numerous benevolences
              • But when Edward collected massive taxes to pay for a war with France between 1472 and 1475, he ended up not fighting and so taking money under false pretences.
                • So agreed not to collect last tax.
            • Edward also used a more efficient system to collect money. Rather than going through the Exchequer, it went straight to his chamber - so was less bureaucratic.
            • A good source of income was also Acts of Resumption
            • Spent a lot on court, but needed to look like a king so this was not a waste of money.
        • He wanted war with France, so raised taxes and gathered men, and made alliances with Burgundy. However, Burgundy didn't fulfil their promise, and he didn't want to attack in winter, so sued for peace.
          • The Treaty of Picquiny however gave him £50,000 a year, £15,000 as a one-off, and a marriage between Elizabeth and the Dauphin.
            • But Louis broke the treaty in 1483.
    • Succesful
    • Unsuccesful

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